Agriculture, terrestrial, and costal ecosystems all contain natural resources that are vital to the Canadian economy. The Second IPCC Assessment on Climate Change identified three sectors in Canada that are particularly vulnerable to climate change: agriculture and aquaculture, forestry, and fresh water resources. Projected changes in climate are expected to bring a range of challenges and benefits to Canada as our economic and social well-being is greatly influenced by the health and sustainability of these resources.1 In 2007, the agriculture, forestry, and fishing industries generated approximately 2% of Canada’s Gross Domestic Product2, and accounted for approximately 3% of total employment. However, these numbers may be slightly misleading, both because the resources supplied by these industries have a multiplied effect on productivity in Canada's manufacturing, heavy industries, and service industries, as well as the obviously vital importance of affordable food and clean drinking water for all Canadian citizens. Given this, this section considers the implications of climate change on a wide range of socio economic variables across these sectors.