of some unfortunate deer in the forest or homeless dog by the wayside, 0r strug- gling together in the gutters of the city or town for the refuse matter left there for them.

The construction of the birds are in every way suited to the work they have t0 do. Having acquired the fondness for carrion they have lost most of the grasp-

irrg powers in the foot possessed by the. other families of Raptores, as well as the?

dash and courage which is characteristic of all these foirnis which catch their prey alive and kill it. They have. however. acquired a very heavy. strong foot, tarsus and bill, the end of the latter being ex- ceptionally strong and sharp pointed. while both bill and feet are especially adapted for tearing apart the tough skins and other portions of the deceased creatures they frequently feed upon. They are very sociable, but exceedingly voracious, fre- quently gorging themselves until they are unable to arise fr-om their feasting grounds, at which times, if one is not over- come with the very unpleasant odor which is characteristic of the birds, they may be captured with little or no trouble. as they seldom show fight, and only ex- press approval or disapproval of anything by feints or passes and low guttural grunts or hisses. They are possessed of excep- tional wing area and power of flight, being cue of the most remarkable soaring fami- lies in the world. They rise from the ground with afew lazy beats of wing and scar oPf with or against the wind. turning. rising or falling at will without any per- ceptible muscular exertion and are able to

continue this performance for hours with-i

out a beat of the wing.

The head and neck are usually bare of feathers and sparsely covered with short fine hairs, the skin hanging in wrinkles on the neck. like that of the turkey.

The only Manitoban, and. in fact, the only Canadian species of this family is the Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura). fre- quently designated the wild turkey by n-any intelligent persons. on account of the resemblance of the head and foot of the bird to that of the turkey. The Tur- key Vulture is strictly migratory with us. and ranges over the whole province. They are to be found usually in the vicinity of slaughter houses or other places where refuse animal matter is deposited. and are usually difficult of approach. Particularly on theirifirst apearance in the spring. They arrive here about the middle of May. and breed, no doubt, in the less fre- quented districts. The nest is placed in a prostrate hollow log or stump. or on the ground under bushes. The eggs are

creamy white. blotched or spotted irregu- larly vVltll dark brown. I have in two sea- sonsreceiverl two and observed five other specimens in the vicinity of Portage la l’rairie. They leave us some time during September.

_ .~\ peculiar habit of playing ‘possum by feigning death when wounded and cap- tured is credited to this species by Dr. Cones, who says, "the first is admirably executed and frequently long protracted.”


Of this family more may be said of lo- cal interest, as we have some 17 species locally represented, which according to their various peculiar characters and their

Red tailed Hawk.

(Bursa borealis )

economic relations to agriculture, I pro- pc se to divide into three groups, which shall be known as Wholly Beneficial, Mostly Beneficial and Harmful species. I will endeavor to point out the means of distinguishing one group from another. in order that the innocent may cease to be punished for the guilty.

In the Wholly Beneficial class I place two species of the germs Archibueo. viz. : A. lagopus Sancti Johannis and A. fer- rugineus. The former is a common spe- cies with us. the latter only an occasional visitor from the south and west. and the strongest proof of their beneficial quali- ties is the fact that in all the stomachs examined no trace could be found of poul-

either one or two in number and are a try. game or small birds. while 9'2 per cent.