contained mice and other injurious inain- mals and insects, the other t5 per cent. being empty.

The rough-legged Hawk is a large winged but shall footed bird, andJ is wholly incapable of destroying poultry or large game, while stomachs of birds se- cured where waterfowl were abundant re- vealed no change from the ordinary diet of mice and insects. It is somewhat cre- puscular in its habits, being more on the alert during twilight or early dawn, when those pests which constitute its prey are beginning to stir. and before the owls or other hawks have begun to hunt. They range far northward and do an immense amount of good work in keeping in check the numbers of injurious forms which abound in the less settled country, and which become a devastating plague at times, when they reach an agricultural dis- trict.

Sir John Richardson, in his notes, species as follows: “In the softness and fi-llness of its plumage, its feathered legs. and its habits, this bird bears some resem- blance to the owls.

watching for frogs and mice and is often seen sailing over the swampy pieces of ground and hunting its prey in the sub- dued daylight, which illumines even the midnight in high latitudes.”

The ferruginous rough leg is a some- what longer bird, but not much larger footed, and in the country which it inha- bits the gophers and ground squirrels replace the field mouse and do immense damage. The ferrugineous rough leg has been named the Squirrel Hawk because of his fondness for ground squirrels and his persistent persecution of the rodents.

In the Mostly Beneficial Class I have placed-

One species of the genus Falco. viz.: F. sparverius.

Four species of the genus Buteo. viz. : B. borealis, B. Lineatus, B. Swainsoni, B. latissimus.

One species of the genus Circus, viz. : C. Hudsonius.

It must be remembered here that in di- viding these birds into the above men- tioned groups their persecution of small birds has been added to their destruction to poulltry and game birds. and this addi- ticn has in some cases caused species otherwise beneficial to be placed in the other groups, whereas were the beneficial or injurious qualities of the birds killed by these hawks determined. I am sure the percentage of injury done or beneficial forms destroyed would be in many cases reduced one half. I have, however, made

_ It flies low, sits. for a long time on a branch of a tree=


special mention of those species and have marked down the number of doubtful damage separate from the decided injuries ri-sulting from destruction of poultry and game. For this reason if we deduct the number of cases where small birds were taken from the total number of injurious attacks made by the above five species, we may safely include three oi them in the wholly beneficial or non-injurious class, while the amount of injury done by the remaining three dwindles into insig- iiificance.

Of the first-nientioned species in this class. namely. the Sparrow Hawk. F. spar- verius, no stronger proof of his inability to injure poultry is necessary than to know the size of the bird. He is one of the handsomest of our hawks. and a true little falcon. abundant all over the coun- ,try, especially in the fall. when they may ‘be seen sitting on nearly every other lfence-post on the look-out for grasshop- i Many farmers tell me he

jpers or mice. _ steals young chickens. but an examina-

tion of stomachs of those shot about barns and poultry yards reveals a very different ,tiuth, in the shape of mice._and in_ 3'3“ l stomachs examined by Dr. Fisher, oi the U.S. Agricultural Department, only One stomach contained the remains of a game bird. none of poultry. 1H1 mice andotjher mammals. while insects were found iii "-44. and in 53 cases small birds were lmmd --a total of T4 per cent. entirelybene- ficial. and of the I7 per cent. injurIOHS less than one-third per cent. were lfllunous to poultry. By far the largest percentage of the birds captured were proven to have been .taken while the young were being fed‘ and when the parents had less time to seek regular food. During seasons when grasshoppers or terrestrial caterpil- lars or other insects are numerous. these birds mav be seen in bands of_considera_ble numbers: old and young alike. hllfltfilg about the woods and fields. and gofgmg themselves on these pests. They are con- fiding little fellows. and conseqllentlY- "1 spite of their great value. are one 0f the most persistently persecuted hawks. Any vandal who can handle a gun or any boy who can use a catapult or other destroy- irg instrument. can kill the littlesparrow hawk. and in cases where bounties _were paid for birds of prey. a majorli)’ 0' the certificates were issued _for sparrow hawks. and in many places it is almost extermin- zited where it was once exceedingly nii- iiierous.

The next species to be eemidered l5 probably one of the best known and cer- tainly the most easily recognized m our prairie country. and especially by sports-