230 FIRST LATIN BOOK. [571, 572.

5. Masculine and feminine case-endings.

Noni. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Abl. Sang. . . is, i, 6m, (im), . . é i), Plur. es, fun (112m), ibus, es, es, ibfin.

Ram. L-Thc inclosed endings im and i belong only to a few words.

Rem. 2.—The ending £12m of the genitive plural occurs in the following classes o! nouns; v1z., , l) Neuters in e, al, and ar; as, mare, mdrifivn; animal, animdlifim. 2) Nouns in is and es of Class Ill. ; as, hostis, hostiilm ; mlbés, 112212132111. 3) All monosyllables in s or: preceded by a consonant; as, urbs, urhiin ,- crx, arci 11m. 4) Nouns in ns and rs (though in these aim is sometimes used); as, cliens, clienti 11m ; cohors, cohortifim.

6. Neuter ease-endings. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. Abl

Sing. . . is, i. . . . . é (i), Pa”. a (a), fim (ifim), ibfis, a (i5), a (ii), ‘ibfis Ram-The inclosed endings belong to neuters in e, al, and ar.

571. CLASS I. comprises nouns in c,* l, n, r, t, and y. These either have the root the same as the nominative singular, or form it (with a few exceptions) by one of the following slight vowel-changes:

1) Nouns in lér and bér generally drop e inthe root: as, pater, a fiither ; root, pair.

2) Nouns in En generally change é into i. in the root; as, flizmén, a river; roohflfzmin.

S) Nouns in 1'1! change 21 into i in the root; as, cfipfzt, a head; root, cdpil.

Ran-The quantity ofthe radical vowel is sometimes changed ; this is the case in most nouns in d! and fir, which generally lengthen the vowel in the root.

572. CLASS II. comprises nouns of the third declension in a, n, and a fe\v in i. These form the root by adding a letter to the nominative singular. D

1) Nouns in a, and a few in i, add t; as, pnémé, a poem; root, poémfit: ltyclroméli, mead; root, hydironzélit. 2) Nouns in o add n; as, lei‘), a lion; root, leon.

Stem. 15-0 is long in the root.

Rem. 2.—Nouns in do and go change a into l, before n in the root; as, virgo, n vir gin; root, rirgin. '

'5' 'I‘hcre. are only two nouns of this ending, one of which belongs w ( duos ll.