J%__i_ ______

Chap. Vll. asaai. i 36;

Standards of Truth and Falfhood. By which Familiar ‘Ufi of them,

as Rules to meafure the Truth of other Propolitions, it comes in time

to be thought,’ that more particular Propolitions have their Truth and Evidence from their Conformity to thefe more general ones, which in Difcourfe and Argumentation, are fo frequently urg’d, and ‘conllantly admitted. And this, I think, to be the Reafon why amonglt f0 many Self-evident Propofitions, the moi’: general only have had the Title of Maxims.

§. 12. One thing farther, I think, it may not be amifs to obferve Marxism, if

concerning thefe general Maxims, That they are f0 far from improving “"15” m’ "" or efiablilhing our Minds in true Knowledge, that if our Notions be f;’;,i;‘.;,’j‘,,”[; wrong, loofe, or unPteady, and we refign up our Thoughts to the found em“ Centre‘ of Words, rather than fix them on fettl’d determin’d Ideas of Things ;""i‘?"”"

I fay, thefe General Ivlaxims will fem/e to confirm us in Miliakes ; and

in fuch a way of ufe of Words, which is mofl common, will fire/e to

prove Contradiftions: mug. He that with Des-Caries, {hall frame in his

Mind an Idea of what he calls Body, to be nothing but Extenfion, may

ealily demonlirate, that there is no Vacuum ; i. e. no Space void of Bo-

dy, by this Maxim, W I24! is, is. For the Idea to which he annexes the

name Body, being bare Extenlion, his Knowledge, that Space cannot

be without Body, is certain. For he knows his own Idea of Exten..

fion clearly and difiinfiizly, and knows that it is what i: is, and not an-

other Idea, tho’ it be call’d by thefe three names, Exrenfion, Body, bpaoe.

Which three Words Handing for one and the fame Idea, may no doubt,

with the fame evidence and certainty, be affii'm’d one of another, as

each of it felf: And it is as certain, that whilfl I ufe them all to Hand

for one and the fame Idea , this Predication is as true and identical in its fignification, That Space is Body, as this Predication is true and identical,

rba; Body is Body, both in fignification and found.

§. 13. But ifanother {hall come, and make tohimfelfanother Idea, Igfl-=

different from Des-Carrefs of the thing, which yet,with Des Caries he l acuum’ calls by the fame name Body, and make his Idea, which he exprelTes by

the word Body, to be of a thing that hath both Exienfioai and bkilidiiy t0-

gether, he will as eafily demonlirate, that there may be a Ifiaoanm, or

Space without a Body, as Des-(jarzes demonlirated the contrary. Be-

caufe the Idea to which he gives the name Spaee, being barely the limple one of Extenfion; and the Idea, to which he gives the name Body, being the complex Idea of Exrenjion and Reflflibzliiy, Ol‘ iSo/idzry together in the fame fubjeft, thefe two Idea: are not exaetly one and the fame, but in the UndetPtanding as difiinPt as the Ideas of One and Two, White and Black, or as of (jorporeiry and Humanity, it I may ufe thofe barba~ rous Terms: And therefore the Predication of them in our Minds, or in Words ltanding for them is not identical, but the Negation ofthem one of another; viz. this Propofition Extenfion or Space zls not Body, is as true and evidently certain, as this Maxim, It is impo/fiblefor rbefvne ibing to be, and not to bet‘; cahn make any Propoliti(on. §. r4. But yet tho’ ot t ie e Propolitions as you fee) may be e- TM PM» we qually demonltrated, viz. That there may be a Vacuum, and thatzji‘,if'nllfj’"' there cannot be a Vacuum, by tllefe two certain Principles, (we) nvziitvsieiiiie PI/"ba: is, is , and TF/iefune thing cannot be, and be: yet neither of thele Principles will ferve to prove to us, that any, or what Bodies do exiil : For that we are left to our Senies, to dilcover to us as far as they can. Thole Univerlal and Self-evident Principles, being only our coiiltant, clear, and dillinét Knowledge of our own Ideas, more general or A a a 2 compre-