to hunt Buffalo to get through the winter. In 1818 and 1819 their crops were badly damaged by grasshoppers (their first visitation here) and in the winter of 1819 and 1820, aparty was


Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi river nearly to the north line of Illinois a full thousand miles, for seeds to plant the coming spring. They obtained three Mackinaw boat loads, and on the

15th of April, 182D, started homewards i in the government of the latter Terri- i

up the Mississippi river to the mouth of the Minnesota river, just above where St. Paul now is, up that river to Big Stone Lake, then acrossa small portage to Lake Traverse, the source of

the Red River end down that Stream’ i are the Hon. Marc Amable Girard, a, Teaching Pembma on the 3d of June- llawyer, a native of the Province of i

This was the beginning of the COMMERCE WITH THE STATES. In the following year, 1821, the two

govern this country, assisted by a i Council, but some of the people object- 3 ing, Gov. McDougall never entered the iProvince but returned. Subsequently in the Canadian Parliament of 1870, a

to go on snow shoes to the near- 1 portion of Rupert's Land was erected i est settlement, across Minnesota to 1 into the Province of Manitoba, with a‘

lRepresentative form of Government. 1 That year Hon. Adam George Archi- bald was sent out as Lieut. Governor iof the Province of Manitoba and the lNorthwest Territories, being assisted

tories by an especial advisory Council, i nominated for that special purpose by I the Queen.


Quebec-born in 1822,came here in 1870,

has held and very acceptably filled many of the Provincial ‘and Territorial oflices, a gentle-

Canada at the time of his appointment. His present


was formed in January, 1879. It con- sists of Hon. John Norquay, Premier and Provincial treasurer, Hon. Joseph , Royal, Minister of Public Works; Hon. i C. P. Brown, Provincial secretary; ' Hon. D. M. Walker, Attorney General and Hon. Pierre Delorme, Minister of Agriculture.


the Premier and Prov'ncial treasurer, is a. native of the Province; was educated at St. Johns Col- lege, where he took a scholar- iship, has been a member of the ex- ecutive council, with but a short inter- mission, since its formation in 1871, having also held the position of mem-

education, also minister of public works and board of agriculture. He is a

greattrading Companies amalgamated man of very genial nature’ and!quiet! decided ma" °f a natumuY

and Peace at 18st came t0 those herdy fine personal presence-mud Hon. John '

pioneers. I cannot learn that their numbers were much increased bv any subsequent emigration. A few Swiss watchmakeis came out in 1821, but by 1826 they had mostly left for various points along the Mississippi Valley, in the States. Some opened farms on the

resent site of St. Paul and also at Fort

nelling, (since built at the juncture of the Minnesota with the Mississippi river) then an unbroken wild, other settlement not coming in there at all until some 2) or 25 years after.

ed slowly, by natural growth, by dis- charged and retiring employee of the two consolidated companies, the com- ing in of a few emigrants from the States and the settling about them of the half breeds.

In 1851 ‘ov. Ramsey, who then vis- lted the ttlement found them so abundantly supplied with all the pro- duzts of their labors, for which l ey had but a very limited market, that he reported them on his return to St. Paul to be “metaphorically smothering in their own fat,” So time passed un- til the formation of the Canadian Da- niinion in 1887, and the measures to ex- tinguish the H. B. Company’s exclu- sive administrative and trading privi- leges in 1868, began to turn attention to this section. But it was not until- 1871 or 1872, that emigration began to come here to any extent.

But to resume the historical, I would say, that up to the extinguishment of the I-I. B. Company's title, Rupert’s Land was not a part of Canada, but be- longed to the Imperial or English Crown, under the H. B. Company. It was acquired by Canada in 1870,

by the arrangements before spoken of; through an agreement with the H. B. (‘ompany releasing

Hieir proprietary rights-i and by Impe- rial Iiegie atioii in 18135 authorizing the name. By the terms previously named the bargain between (‘anada and the ll. B. (‘ompany with the Imperial (loteriiment, Canada made the cash payment and the Imperial (hiverii- meiii. the necessary legislation to secure Lhe H. B. (jompaiiys title to the lands its agreed, by the approval of the (‘r-iwn. At the time and [irevious to this transfer, there had been a kind of local government in existent-c, orgaii- ‘ized over a smaller portion of ltuperUi-i Land than what is now known as Aliuiitoba, which was known us the


In 1861i the Government of (Yanada sent Hon. \Villliin lvlcDougall out to

,‘Southerland. Mr. Southerland is 3a native of Manitoba. Like his col- league he has held several provincial . ofices, and having been identified with lManitoba from the first, his select- ion seems most wise. Both were i appointed in 1871. The members for Manitoba in the Dominion House of Commons, are the ‘Honorables John C. Schultz, Donald ,A. Smith, Joseph Dubuc and Joseph .Ryan. The two first were elected

Thelmnfit llt‘ '11] settlement along the Red River increas- imvifice {a 1§§fl°§Qd gzselogofllln beeg i

ltwice reelected. Mr. Ryan has just ibeen re-elected and Mr. Dubuc, late rspeaker of the Provincial Parliment, ‘(is serving his first term. Mentally ', they are a strong delegation, a unit in

‘advocating the interests of Manitoba ‘and the Northwest, and though they are small in numbers in comparison with the large delegations in that body i from some of the other Provinces, they are untiring workers, and Manitobsls dnfluence in the House, is not by any i means in proportion to the number of iher re resentatives. They are men inot on y familiar with the capacities and wants of this section, but fully

. i comprehend its vast opportunities and

i wonderful future.


ioriginally consisted of two branches. iThe Legislative Assembly (elective) 1 of twenty-four members, and the Legis ilative Council (nominative) of seven ‘membersi In 1876 the latter council iwas abolished. In 1872 Gov. Archi- , blld retired and was succeeded by Hon. iAlexander Morris (under whose ad- I ministration the Province became ‘thoroughly pacified and most of the present seven. Indian treaties were made, by which the Indian title to Manitoba and most of the Northwest f territory was peacetuly and satisfact- oraly extinguished and the Province entereu upon its new life and develop-

ment) who was in December 1877, his

full term having expired, succeeded by


who was born in the city of Quebec in . lsio. A descendant of one oi the old- est families of that Province, for many years he was an editor of marked ‘, ability and author of several standard works. He has been in continuous public life for nearly thirty years and was Dominion Minister of Internal 1 Revenue andlfleaident of the Queens Privy Council for the DJIDIDlOII of

strong, active mind, which is ever kept under control and guided with perfect coolness. Hisrecent elevation to the Premiership is a most graceful ac- knowledgement on the part of the new comers to the Province of the integ- rity, energy and ability of one of the old residents, to the manor born,


Minister of Public Works, was Pro- vincial Sscretarv and Attorney Gen- eral in the late Davis ministry. Mr. Riyal is from the Province of Quebec, was called to the bar of Lower Canada in 1864, and of Manitobain 1871. As a lawyer he has been engaged as advocate in many notable and impor- tant cases. His university, and partic- ularly his legal education, were obtain- ed under unusually favorable opportu- nities. He was a prominent writer for many years on the French Canadian newpaper and periodical press, and has filled an editorial chair almost un- interruptedly since 1857, which has so quickened his perceptive faculties- naturally great-that he is enabled to obtain and retain, that place of high esteem among his associates and people of the Province, which is always ac- corded educated intellect, when guided and influenced by that broadness and comprehensiveness that enable its sessor to overcome life’s natural, as well as active obstacles and vexations, bringing out of the contest a mind, “with malice towards none, with charity for all.”


the Provincial secretary, descended from an U. E. Loyalists family which settled in New Brunswick at the close of the Revolutionary War. He came to this Province about seven or eight - years ago, and was member of the Provincial Legislative Assembly for the past four years. Perhaps no per- son is more familiar with the real wants of this country than Mr. Brown, whose duties before he entered Parlia- .ment as a Dominion Land Surveyor gave him superior advantages in gain- ing a perfect knowledge of a country in whose development he is now cal- led to take so active a part. Before entering the ministry, although but a young man, he was the author of sev- eral important measures, prominent l among them being s re-division of the Province into counties and based ihereon a general municipal law, to the carrying out of which, in his new |sphere he is an lying himself most energetically. r. Brown's standing, popularity and enterprise are fully re-

cognized, he being the only minister

ber of the board of health and board of‘