lug named by the Queen ; she seems to waive that right with the single excep- tion of the Governor General ; and even in his case, she would not name or re

-tain any one that was obnoxious to

them. All commissions and legal docu- ments emanating from and under the Dominion, acknowledge Her Maiesty's sovereignty, and ll ht as her le hold upon them seems, very much oubt if in England even, she has more really loyal subjects than are the Canadians to-day. voruvo IN CANADA, for members ef Parliament, etc,, is free to all (but Indians) exce ta small prop- erty qualification, whic amount may vary some in the different provinces, though I cannot say that it is not uni- form. But this limitation, small as it mad; be, is a most wonderful safe uard of at greatest of political privi eges, the ballot. If these hurried

POLITICAL NOTES

are given with sutlicient clearness, our many readers may be able to better judge which of the two governments, that of Canada or the United Slates, is really the best and freest, and which contains the elements of the greatest present and future strength. They, perhaps, may be able to decide whether we cannot embody in our own govern- mental machinery some good things from even so young a government as that of Canada.

MANITOBA.

On the eastern limit, or more prop- erly speaking, the southeastern corner of this great prairie tract of more than one thousand miles in extent. spoken of in Mr. Grant's “Ocean to Ocean," is the location of this little province, with an area of only some 14,340 square miles, being about 120 miles from east to west, by 100 miles north and south, and containing about 10,- 000,900 acres. Coming just within her eastern borders is that

VAST FOFEST REGION,

that extends away eastwardly through the older provinces to the Atlantic. while comingin from the south is that great prairie country from the United k tates. or which more properly speak- ing, stretches away from the wa- ters of the Peace River through Manitoba, south throu h Minnesota, Dakota, Iowa, Illinois, issouri, Kan- sas, the Indian Territory and Texas, to the Gulf of Mexico, more than two thousand miles from the southern boundary of Manitoba. In this latter prairie tract, away on the south line of the State of Minnesota, rises the Red River, which, running almost due north of the States into and across this province, empties into Lake Winni- peg, some forty miles north of its capital city of iVinaipeg. As this stream pursues its course northward through this great prairie, its valley widens from a few miles to fully 40 miles on the west to the Pembina Mountains, and 50 miles east. but the eastern forest section gradually begins to close in shortly after the river enters the province, in a circular line, until it comes up to and crosses the river about 20 miles above its mouth. Along its western bank, after entering the province, are scattered belts of timber with some on its western trib- utaries; but its eastern bank is gener- ally lined with a timber belt of fully one mile in width, while streams coming in from the east are both more numerous and larger, with correspond- ingly heavy borderings of forest. The

I91

lied River in crosslml Manitoba, leaves about one-third of the province to the east. This river empties into Lake Winnipeg through four channels or mouths; the first, or more easterly being the best. All of its channels or mouths run through a large tract of grassy marsh, extending some nine miles north and south, and 15_ miles east and west, along the head of this great lake some three hundred miles long. A little more than halt way from the south to the northern pro-

vincial boundaries the ASSINNEBOINE

em ties into the Red from the west. Fo owing up the Assinneboine its general course through the Province to its Western limit is to the west, thus dividing the Western two-thirds of the Province into nearly two equal parts. Near the northwest cor- ner of the Province comes in a high plateau called the Riding Mountains, which run in a southeast course until broken by the broad valleyof the As- sinneboine, here some fifty miles wide the river flowing nearly through the middle of this valley. To the south of this valley this same plateau attain- ing an elevation of some two or three hundred feet again rises, running in theauslame general course but is known as e

PEMBINA MOUNTAINS

which extend on out of the Province into the States, thus dividing the western portion of the Province into two parts, that laying to the east being generally the level prairie of the Red and Assinneboine valleys proper, while to the west it is higher and more rolling. Along the northern boundary line near the northeast cor- ner the wsters of

LAKE WINNIPEG

come down into the Province some fifteen miles. This lake is some 300 miles long from the mouth of the Red river to its outlet into the Hudsons Bay, near Norway House, through the River Nelson. Its course is directly north. Following along this same northern boundary line some forty miles from the western shore of Lake Winnipeg,

LAKE MANITOBA

comes down into the Province some 25 miles. It runs north some 120 miles when it is terminated by a marshy section through whicn runs a narrow channel a mile or two into

LAKE WINNEPEGOSIS.

This lake runs north another 120 miles, having an outlet through a small lake called Cedar Lake, which is really an enlargement of the Saskatchewan, a short distance above its mouth, and so the waters of these two lakes reall flow into Lake Winnipeg through the channel or mouth of that river. To- gether these two lakes are two hun- dred and twenty miles from north to south with many beautiful bays and smaller connecting lakes. The great- est breadth of Lake Manitoba is twenty-four miles and of Lake Winn- epegosis, twenty miles. Uninterrup- ted navigation is obtainable between these two lakes. Some twenty five miles down the eastern shore of Lake Winnipeg at Fort Alexander the

“IINNIPEG RIVER

enters the lake. This is a large stream, itgbeing the outlet of Rainy Lake, Lake of the Woods, in fact the entire country nearly through to Thunder Bay on Lake Superior and embraces in its basin the greatest watered portion of the entire continent

save only that of the great lakes them- selves. Its scenery is grand and pic- turesque. lt isa stream of cascades and waterfalls, falling during its course of 125 to 150 miles from the Lake of the Woods nearly 600 feet. This river with the lakes and streams connected with it was the highway or water way over which those hardy French Canadian voyagers for more than 100 years carried on their trafiic between the waters of Lake Superior and their trading posts on the Red, Saskatchewan and other streams to the west and south through to the Pa- cific. They form to-day a part of the

DAWSON ROUTE

which begins at Thunder Bay goin west over the same series of smal lakes and streams to the west shore of the Lake of the Woods, where instead of continuing down Winnipeg River, up the lake and up Red Rivenitleaves the Lake of the Woods and by wagon road goes direct to Winnipeg or Ft. Garry, 125 miles distant. On this route to-day eleven small steamers take the place of the batteaux of those early voyagers in the waters between the different portages, while good connect- ing roads have been built where nec- essary. This route was opened through by the Canadian government in 1870 and has since been kept in op- oration by the government, open to travel and transportation generally. Though ‘tis perhaps but natural to ex- pect, it never has become a. much pat- ronized route, as aggrinst continuing on Lake Superior to uluth, the North- ern Pscific| and St. Paul & Pacific to Winnipeg. Still the opportunity has existed and at low rates fixed by the Canadian government, which is to-day expending large amounts in building locks in Rainy River for steamers to still further im- rove it. Again, through this same section the Canadian Pacific Railway has its line located and most of it un- der contract, with some 225 miles graded and the iron down at least 190 miles of 1t, while at Thunder Bay and Winnipeg is piled up the steel rails, fish plates, bolts and spikes enough for the entire distance. So that soon the whistle of the locomotive will be heard through those wilds that for the last 150 years knew only the songs and shouts of the "Coureurs Des Bois." But returning to Manitoba again, I would say, that between Lake Winni- peg, Manitoba and Winnepegosis, the country is generally a forest, as it is generally around the shores of all these lakes, also along the streams en- tering into them. Along the Assinneboine are heavy timber belts, especially on its south bank which,with that along the Red, already spoken of, and the generally timbered uplands of the Riding and Pembina mountains, need only protection against prairie fires to increase it largely; while coal is known to exist in the Riding and Pembina mountains. So it will he seen that the

WOOD AN-D WATER SUPPLY

is ample for all present and future wants of the Province-while as yet Manitoba is drawing but little on her own fuel resources as most at present is rafted down the Red river from the

States. r1112 son.

of the Province being mainly of the rich black alluvium of the Red and Assin- neboine Valleys, from four to eight and even twelve feet deep, is unsurpassed in fertility even by that of the famouf Valley of the Nile, while that of its gentle uplands is of a quick rich loam.