Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces to Respond to Climate Change

100,000+ Jobs: Getting Albertans back to Work by Building a Low-Carbon Future
The report states that “Alberta has the potential to create over one hundred and forty-five thousand new jobs — 46,780 jobs in renewable energy, 68,400 jobs in energy efficiency, and 30,000-40,000 jobs in mass transit.” It provides case studies and makes policy recommendations.
2011-2014 GHGRP Industrial Profiles: Petroleum and Natural Gas
This report provides statistics for GHG emissions of petroleum and natural gas production, processing, transmission and distribution in 2014. These activities accounted 236 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This is an increase of 3.5% compared to 2013 GHG emissions from this sector.
A Climate change plan for the purposes of the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act
Outlines Canada's Kyoto targets and obligations for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, current emissions, and the actions taken to reduce emissions, with special focus on energy and transportation sectors. This document does not include a comprehensive inventory of climate change actions taken by the Government of Canada- only federal actions that will result in emission reductions during the Kyoto Protocol compliance period (2008-2012) are included. Also available in French.
A Green Economic Stimulus Package to Secure our Current and Future Prosperity
We propose at least $15 billion in targeted investments that will create over 160,000 jobs this year in areas such as clean energy and transportation, and green infrastructure and households. These activities will generate immediate economic returns – at least on par with other stimulus options – while reducing environmental impacts hat cost Canada billions each year. We have researched a broad range of potential stimulus measures put forward by international and Canadian organizations and experts. Each was tested against a series of economic and environmental criteria, which essentially ask two questions: (i) will it provide maximum economic bang for the buck (using basically the same criteria as Finance does); and (ii) will it also generate significant environmental benefits (based on a three part test)? Our results were reviewed by some of Canada’s top economic experts, and form the basis for our recommendations. Our three areas of focus are: Public (green infrastructure); Business (clean development and jobs), and Households (helping Canadians go green).
A Green Industrial Revolution: Climate Justice, Green Jobs and Sustainable Production in Canada
Marc Lee and Amanda Card acknowledge that transition to a zero carbon Canada will take several decades, and state that the principal challenge for Canada and all countries is to decouple the economy from fossil fuels. They calculate that only 9% of Canadian workers are employed in jobs related to fossil fuels and other "hot spots" of Canadian industry (including electricity generation, freight transportation and transportation services, chemical manufacturing, metal manu­facturing and agriculture), yet these sectors comprise 78% of industrial and commercial GHG emissions. The authors also calculate GHG emissions per worker in 14 industrial sectors in Canada. The report offers 12 recommendations for achieving zero carbon growth while creating and maintaining decent green jobs.
A Human Health Perspective On Climate Change
One purpose of this document is to identify research gaps to increase the understanding of climate change and health. Expanding our understanding of the often indirect, long-term, and complex consequences of climate change for human health is a high priority and challenging research task.
A Labor Rights Statement of Support: (Resolution for Environmentalists)
Labour unions are frequently asked to pass resolutions relating to climate and environmental policy. This sample resolution, recently approved by the board of the Labor Network for Sustainability, is offered so that other environmental and climate protection organizations will consider and pass it, and endorse labour union rights including freedom to organize and bargain collectively. Also includes such statements: "We pledge to work together for job creation in a climate-friendly economy; fight together for full employment in an economy that uses union labor. For example, American steel made by USW members must be used to make wind turbines erected by union building trades workers."
A New Union for a Challenging World: Unifor’s Vision and Plan
At the founding convention of the new union (a merger of the CAW and the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union), Unifor promises to oppose the export of raw bitumen and the construction of massive pipelines, advocating for more “made in Canada” inputs and processing. It pledges to work with environmental allies to advocate for a Canadian energy policy which reduces GHG emissions, ensures a sustainable development of the oil sands and promotes value-added jobs in upgrading and refining petroleum products.
A New Wave of Climate Insurgents Defines Itself as Law-Enforcers
The author characterizes the upcoming 2016 "Breakfree" protests as part of a “climate insurgency”, which is seen “not only as a moral but as a legal right and duty, necessary to protect the Constitution and the public trust for ourselves and our posterity”. Brecher catalogues other U.S. examples, including the court challenges led by Our Children’s Trust.
A Profile of the Greenhouse Industry in British Columbia and Clues to Climate Change
This paper profiles the greenhouse industry in British Columbia, and seeks out the issue of climate change in the same industry. It concludes that the industry is expanding and is an important economic contributor to the economy of the province. It is also an industry that employs a large number of foreign migrant workers, who like most other workers in the industry, are on temporary employment basis. This has consequences for workers (see Aguiar et al for a discussion 2011). Finally, on the basis of scant literature that speaks to climate change issues, I argue that climate change has yet to be forcibly articulated by the stakeholders in the industry and thus a significant gap exists in the literature. I add that only through interviews and case study analysis with stakeholders in the industry, will we begin to pull out and understand the issues that implicate climate change in the greenhouse industry.
A Retrospective Assessment of Clean Energy Investments in the Recovery Act
A review of the spending and job creation achieved under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, enacted in 2009 under President Obama. Areas receiving government assistance: clean energy, energy efficiency, clean energy transportation and manufacturing.
ACW Baseline Report: Built Environment
This paper was presented at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces (ACW) International Workshop in Toronto, Canada, November 2015. The goals of the paper are: 1. To establish the current state of knowledge about the contribution of the workforce to ‘greening’ the construction industry; 2. To assess the potential of labour to shape the industry’s carbon footprint. 3. To identify barriers to the successful participation of the workforce in developing pathways to low carbon construction and develop strategies to circumvent these barriers. 4. To identify needed modifications to employment, employment conditions, working practices and the overall organization of construction work that will improve the capacity of the workforce to implement low carbon construction (effective health and safety provisions, integrated team‐based work practices, improved vocational education and training (VET), union representation and a greater say for the workforce in shaping the industry’s future). 5. To examine the current and potential role of unions and professional organizations in advancing this process. 6. To analyze the workforce implications of widely used policy tools, such as energy efficiency targets, building codes and contract procurement requirements in facilitating the transition to low carbon construction. 7. To carry out research on the role of workers and the organizations that represent them in implementing specific, innovative low carbon projects which can serve as models for wider application in the building industry.
ACW Baseline Report: Domestic Policy
Presented at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces (ACW) International Workshop in Toronto, Canada, November 2015. The paper presents an overview of Canadian policies and financing instruments, at the federal and provincial level, implemented to date to discourage greenhouse gas emissions and to encourage the adoption of green energy.
ACW Baseline Report: Energy
Presented at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces (ACW) International Workshop in Toronto, Canada, November 2015. A review of all energy-related emissions is provided in this report, along with projections of future energy use. It is shown that oil and gas, transport, and buildings are the sectors most responsible for our increased emission profile. Growth in industrial and transport energy use will demand significantly more fossil fuel unless policy interventions push us towards ‘greener’ scenarios; using projections from the Trottier Energy Futures Project (TEFP 2016), two such scenarios are explored, one focused on sustainable urban development, and the other on a future where new electricity generation from nuclear sources is constrained. In both of these scenarios, the amount of electricity used in every sector increases dramatically. This suggests that a critical issue of the future will be designing new electricity generation in order to benefit both society and the workers who are engaged in the projects
ACW Baseline Report: Manufacturing
This workplan sets out a base of information concerning 3 manufacturing sectors: auto, forestry, and food processing.
ACW Baseline Sub-Report: Labor Unions and Green Transitions in the US
This Draft Baseline Report was prepared for the ACW Project, December 7, 2015 (edited April 15, 2016). Please do not quote without the consent of the author. This report provides an exploratory overview of U.S. labor union proposals and practices regarding a green transition. It focuses, primarily, on national level unions. One goal of the report is to explore whether workers and unions are striving to be the agents and authors of a green transition and what political dynamics may prevent or enable them to do so. A second goal is to explore how inclusive or exclusive the green transitions envisioned by unions may be.
ACW Baseline Sub-Report: Policies and Practices to Promote Work Enhancing Pathways in the Transition to a Low Carbon Economy
Presented at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces (ACW) International Workshop in Toronto, Canada, November 2015. This review gives an overview of the European policy context with regard to climate change. An analysis is presented of the views of the principal Europe wide trade union organization, the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) on this new policy context for environmental sustainability and climate change. This is based on publicly available documentary sources along with reports on a selection of European national trade union confederation initiatives and recent developments in trade union/labour movement policy by European policy institutions and analysts.
Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit A geospatial data resource from U.S. EPA’s Office of Sustainable Communities: Technical D
Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit is a free geospatial data resource and web mapping tool for comparing the performance of neighborhoods in regards to their accessibility to destinations via public transit service. Using publically available transit service data we calculated – for each U.S. census block group – travel time to all other census block groups accessible via transit. Drawing on data from the census we tabulated how many people live and work in those accessible block groups. We combined these data to summarize several indicators of transit accessibility for individual block groups as well as regional benchmarks for comparison. Travel time is limited to 45 minutes and is inclusive of wait times, transfers, and walking to/from transit stops. Coverage is limited to metropolitan regions and counties served by transit agencies that publically share their service data in a standard format called GTFS. A full listing of those areas is included as appendix to this report.
Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada
This report recommends a unified carbon pricing policy for Canada—a policy aimed at meeting one clear objective: the greatest amount of carbon emission reductions, at the least economic cost. Following more than a year of research and consultation, our report sets out what we believe is the most effective, realistic, and achievable carbon pricing policy for current and anticipated Canadian circumstances.
Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada - Technical Backgrounder
This report complements the Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada report by providing additional details on the analysis underpinning the conclusions in the Advisory Note. By integrating the research commissioned or developed by the NRTEE, including economic modelling, it illustrates the main Advisory Note’s grounding in credible and original analysis. The Technical Backgrounder also provides a useful policy design framework and reference tool for policy makers by identifying important design and implementation issues and the trade-offs between the main design options .
Achieving Balance - Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan
Achieving Balance was released on December 2, 2013. It is an updated long-term energy plan which emphasizes energy conservation, maintains the policy of ending coal-generated electricity, and holds the line on investment in new nuclear power facilities. The Thunder Bay nuclear plant will be converted to generate energy from advanced biomass. The plan acknowledges Ontario’s reduced energy demands and sets a target of about half of Ontario’s installed generating capacity to come from renewable sources by 2025. Several backgrounders were also released supporting the strategic directions, including backgrounders re Northern Ontario, First Nations, and conservation. Also available in French.
Achieving Public Policy Objectives through collective agreements: The Project Agreement Model for public construction in British
From the authors: "The Construction of the $1.2 billion Vancouver Island Highway Project provided an opportunity for the building trades unions and the Government of BC to negotiate an innovative collective agreement that included union membership, training for local residents and members of equity groups, new employment opportunities for members of designated equity groups and a comprehensive health and safety program. The Project implemented the most comprehensive system of tracking progress in employment equity in BC’s history. By its completion, women, First Nations, persons with disabilities and visible minorities accounted for just under 20% of total hours worked in an industry where 2% representation is the norm. Over 94% of payroll went to local residents, ensuring their communities the benefits of this major capital project. Finally, the health and safety record was significantly better than on any comparable construction project. Far from being an impediment to the efficient and timely completion of this major construction project, the collective agreement made it possible to deliver training, employment opportunities and regional development." Archived at the Just Labour website at http://www.yorku.ca/julabour/volume2/calvert_justlabour.PDF .
Acting on Climate Change: Extending the Dialogue Among Canadians
Compiles submissions from First Nations, business, NGOs, labour, youth and private citizens , organized into topics which include Employment and Labour, Social Justice, Indigenous Perspectives, Reinventing Cities, Renewable Energy Challenges, Youth, and more. Submissions were made in response to the first SCD consensus paper from March 2015: "Acting on Climate Change: Solutions from Canadian Scholars". Highlight papers from the responses: “The role of workers in the transition to a low-carbon economy ; “Protect the Environment by Doing More Work, Not Less”; and “Envisioning a Good Green Life in British Columbia: Lessons From the Climate Justice Project”.
Acting on Climate Change: Solutions from Canadian Scholars
“A scholarly consensus on science-based, viable solutions for greenhouse gas reduction”. Sixty academics from across Canada combined to urge policymakers to adopt a long-term target of at least an 80 % reduction in emissions by mid-century. “In the short-term, we believe that Canada, in keeping with its historical position of aligning with US targets, could adopt a 2025 target of a 26-28% reduction in GHG emissions relative to our 2005 levels.” Policy recommendations include, most immediately: Either a national carbon tax or a national economy-wide cap and trade program; elimination of subsidies to the fossil fuel industry ; and integration of sustainability and climate change into landscape planning at the regional and city levels so that maintenance and new infrastructure investments contribute to decarbonizing. The paper also advocates establishment of East-West smart grid connections to allow hydro-producing provinces to sell electricity to their neighbours; energy efficiency programs, and a “transportation revolution”. Also available in French, as Agir sur les changements climatiques, http://www.sustainablecanadadialogues.ca/files/PDF_DOCS/FR_15mars_20H_lowres.pdf
American Unions Form Alliance to Prevent Climate Disaster and Promote Prosperity
A defense of the unions who have joined a PAC for the U.S. election 2016. In reference to the New York Times article, May 16, "Rift Between Labor and Environmentalists Threatens Democratic Turnout Plan”, the authors state: "The Times characterized this as a “rift between labor and environmentalists.” It is much better understood, however, as an effort by a small group of unions to retain their veto power within the AFL-CIO.”… “The great majority of unions that accepted the alliance with NextGen Climate should proudly defend it as a way to express this historic tradition of meeting their members’ needs by addressing the most pressing needs of society.”
An Overview of Indigenous Models of Conservation
This report presents the NRTEE with an overview of how indigenous people have approached, and continue to approach the protection and preservation of land and resources within broader ecosystem environments.
Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy: A Resource for States
From the introductory comments: "This groundbreaking document is the first to organize and present a comprehensive review of the multiple benefits of clean energy, together with an analytical framework that states can use to assess those benefits during the development and implementation of clean energy policies and programs."
Aviation and climate change
Subtitle is: aircraft emissions expected to grow, but technological and operational improvements and government policies can help control emissions.
Bioindustry Creates Green Jobs
Fact sheet listing possible career options for biofuels - from farms to professional bioengineering.
Biopower Technical Strategy Workshop Summary Report
"This report summarizes the results of a workshop sponsored by the DOE/EERE Biomass Program in Denver, Colorado, on December 2–3, 2009. The workshop was convened to identify and discuss challenges to the expanded use of biopower and the possible solutions, including technology research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) as well as policies and other market transformation mechanism."
Border Adjustments for Economywide Policies That Impose a Price on Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Examines the unintended consequences of economy-wide programs such as carbon pricing. Also examines border adjustments, "which could reduce the loss of competitiveness and make the costs of U.S. producers more similar to those of producers in countries that do not impose comparable policies, but such adjustments could be difficult to implement and to defend if challenged as being inconsistent with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), one of the component agreements of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Transition assistance could also offset the loss of competitiveness."
Building An Ontario Green Job Strategy: Ensuring the Climate Change Action Plan creates good Jobs where they are needed most
The report focuses on the building sector provisions within Ontario’s Climate Change Action Plan (June 2016), providing job creation forecasts from the reinvestments of energy cost savings into the economy. It also discusses Just Transition issues, and highlights the examples of community benefits agreements and high road agreements, which ensure job quality. The report was written by Glave Communications for the Clean Economy Alliance , Environmental Defence, and Blue Green Canada , “with the participation of the United Steelworkers, UNIFOR, Clean Energy Canada, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, the Toronto and York Region Labour Council, the Labour Education Centre, the Columbia Institute, Canadian Solar Industries Association, Ontario Sustainability, the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario, and Evergreen.”
Building Common Ground: A New Vision for Impact Assessment in Canada
The report incorporates a fundamental idea in its title: what is now “environmental assessment” should become “impact assessment”. The Panel recommends that: an Impact Assessment Commission should be established as an independent, arm’s length government agency, “with a broad leadership mandate to conduct project, region-based and strategic-level assessments. …. The Commission would also be mandated to generate its own independent science so that assessments are evidence-based and agency-led… and the Panel should commit to ensuring that the projects are not developed without the early involvement of potentially affected Indigenous peoples and the public. ”
Building Ontario's Green Economy: a Road Map
The brief report compiles policy recommendations for a variety of different sectors, including agriculture, construction, manufacturing, transportation, waste management. It calls upon the government to enact these policies urgently.
Building Sustainable Enterprises: A Knowledge Transfer Project - Delivery Plan
This delivery plan descibes the deliverables, budget and scope of the Building Sustainable Enterprises Project. It also outlines the roles and responsibilities of the partner organizations for project implementation and delivery. In addition, the delivery plan forms the basis for agreements between the Funding Partners, the NRTEE and Five Winds International.
Building a Clean Electricity Future
This chapter is part of a report that provides 76 recommendations that seek to enable the modernization and transformation of the electricity system. "Undertaken in conjunction with state and local governments, policymakers, industry, and other stakeholders, the recommendations provide the building blocks for longer-term, planned changes and activities."
Building the green economy: Employment effects of green energy investments for Ontario
Widely cited study. Estimates of job creation are given for 2 alternative investment scenarios for the province: 1) a baseline program of $18.6 billion invested in conservation and demand management; hydroelectric power; on-shore wind power; bioenergy; waste energy recycling; and solar power over 10 years, and 2) a more ambitious $47.1 billion 10-year investment program, also investing in off-shore wind power and a smart grid electrical transmission system. Recommendations include ways for the province to maximize the quantity and quality of those jobs.
CANUS West North Annex I to the Canada-United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A Plan for Response to Polluting Incidents Along the Inland Boundary between the Yukon Territory and the Province of British Columbia, Canada and the State of Alaska, United States of America - text of the agreement and detailed provisions for emergency response
CANUS-East Annex V to the Canada-United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A Plan for Response to Polluting Incidents Along the Inland Boundary between the Province of New Brunswick, Canada and the State of Maine, United States of America. Includes details and provisions for immigration procedures for workers crossing borders, and health and safety issues.
CANUSCENT Annex III to the Canada-United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A detailed disaster response plan including provisions relating to worker deployment, health and safety, and workers compensation.
CANUSPLAIN Annex II to the Canada United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A Plan for Response to Polluting Incidents Along the Inland Boundary between the Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, and the States of Minnesota, Montana and North Dakota.
CANUSQUE Annex IV to the Canada - United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
Detailed disaster response plans, including provisions regarding worker issues, health and safety and workers compensation. Covers Quebec and the states of Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and New York.
CANUSWEST South: Annex I to the Canada-United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A Plan for Response to Polluting Incidents Along the Inland Boundary between the Province of British Columbia and the States of Montana, Washington, and Idaho.
CEC Annual Report 2013
Annual report of cooperative activities of the Commission, composed of representatives of U.S., Canada, and Mexico. This particular report also includes information about recycling of Spent Lead Acid Batteries, and country reports from each of the 3 participant countries.
CLC Statement on Climate Change for Presentation to the House of Commons Committee on Bill C-30 March 1, 2007
Concluding paragraph: "Bill C-30 must set a clear framework for a national action plan to meet specified greenhouse gas reduction targets, including hard emissions caps for large final emitters and an emission trading system, a framework for new regulatory standards, establishment of mandates for funds to support a green jobs/green industrial strategy, including a Climate Change Investment Fund and funds for Just Transition. Funding for climate change programs and related tax reforms as highlighted above should be included in the 2007 Budget."
California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Decision granting a waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption
Full title: California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Decision granting a waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption for California's 2009 and subsequent model year Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles. Notice appearing in the Federal Register for July 8 2009, Vol. 74, No. 129 . A technical review of the history and science re the vehicle pollution standards.
Can Canada Expand Oil and Gas Production, Build Pipelines and Keep Its Climate Change Commitments?
This study assesses the consequences of several scenarios of expansion in the oil and gas sector in terms of the amount that the non–oil and gas sectors of the economy would need to reduce emissions to meet Canada’s Paris commitments. It finds Canada cannot meet its global climate commitments while at the same time ramping up oil and gas extraction and building new export pipelines. The study also reviews existing pipeline and rail capacity for oil exports under the cap on oil sands emissions announced last year by the Alberta government (set at 100 million tonnes (Mt) per year) and finds Canada has enough capacity to handle the 45% increase in oil sand production this would entail. It also takes a close look at oil price trends, and finds that new pipelines with tidewater access are unlikely to confer a significant price premium, as is widely believed.
Canada in a Changing Climate: Sector Perspectives on Impacts and Adaptation
This report, an update to a 2008 edition, synthesized over 1500 publications since 2007, and includes chapters on natural resources, food production, industry, biodiversity and protected areas, human health, and water and transportation infrastructure. Over 90 authors and 115 expert reviewers contributed to the document.
Canada's Emission Trends 2012
Also available in French as Tendances en matière d'émissions au Canada 2012 at: http://www.ec.gc.ca/Publications/253AE6E6-5E73-4AFC-81B7-9CF440D5D2C5%5C793-Canada%27s-Emissions-Trends-2012_f_01.pdf. P.J. Partington of the Pembina Institute states: "The progress reflected in this year's emissions trends report is largely the result of updated baselines and accounting rules for greenhouse gas pollution, as well as the considerable action some provinces are taking to reduce their emissions." See http://www.pembina.org/media-release/2364.
Canada's Emission Trends 2013
In releasing the 2013 Emissions Trends report in October, the Canadian government stated: “as a result of the combined efforts of federal, provincial and territorial governments, consumers and businesses, GHG emissions in 2020 will be 734 megatonnes (Mt). This is 128 Mt lower than where emissions would be in 2020 if no action were taken to reduce GHGs since 2005.” (The report did not state that it is also 122 Mt above Canada’s target level of 612 Mt.) The government will maintain its current course of regulating emissions on a sector-by-sector basis. Previous reports of 2011 and 2012 are also available online, as well as French versions.
Canada's Emission Trends 2014
"Under under a scenario that includes current measures and the contribution from LULUCF, absolute emissions are projected to be 727 Mt in 2020, 1.2% below 2005 levels. Emissions from the oil and gas and buildings sectors are expected to increase, while emissions in the electricity sector are projected to decrease between 2005 and 2020. Emissions in the transportation, emissions -intensive and trade-exposed, agriculture, and waste and other sectors remain close to 2005 levels." (LULUCF = Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry).
Canada's Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Understanding the Trends, 1990 - 2006
This report is a companion document to Canada's National Inventory Report: Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada, 1990-2006 (NIR) and provides additional analysis on the underlying trends that have been shaping Canada's total Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions since 1990. While the NIR provides a comprehensive inventory of Canada's greenhouse gas emissions consistent with International Panel on Climate Change methodologies, this report attempts to develop discussion points that provide additional insight into factors that may impact future emission levels in Canada,by providing a review of the primary economic, technological and other societal drivers that have contributed to the country's emissions trends for the period between 1990 and 2006. It also compares emissions from 1990 to 2006 with the 1980-1990 period. Note Tables 1 and 3, related to construction. Also available in French and listed in this database as: Emissions de gaz À effect de serre au Canada: comprendre les tendances, 1990-2006
Canada's Opportunity: Adopting Life Cycle Approaches for Sustainable Development
This report provides an overview of current life cycle analysis practices, in Canada and internationally. It shows how companies and governments are embedding Life Cycle Approaches in their operations and decisions for various purposes, and identifies clear risks to Canada’s competitiveness and environmental reputation if we don’t take steps to use Life Cycle Approaches . The report makes recommendations for how business and government can collaborate to enhance economic competitiveness and foster greater environmental stewardship using LCA.
Canada's Second Biennial Report on Climate Change
This report presents projections of greenhouse gas emissions in Canada to the years 2020 and 2030, by sector. It also provides information on actions undertaken to address climate change,both federal and provincial, with live links to documents cited in the summary. Also includes information about climate-related support provided to developing countries. This report is submitted every 2 years to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Canada-United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
This plan "sets forth cooperative measures for dealing with a release of a pollutant along the inland boundary of a magnitude that causes, or may cause, damage to the environment or constitutes a threat to public safety, security, health, welfare, or property". Supercedes the 1994 agreement.
Canada’s Adoption of Renewable Power Sources – Energy Market Analysis
Reports that around 60 per cent of Canada’s electricity in 2015 was produced by hydro with the remaining amount coming from wind power (accounted for 4.4 per cent), biomass (1.9 per cent) and solar power (0.5 per cent) . Includes a section on emerging technologies: geothermal, tidal, offshore wind.
Canada’s Fossil-Fuelled Pensions: The Case of the British Columbia Investment Management Corporation
The report makes the following recommendations so that BCI can align its investments with the 2°C limit: 1. A portfolio-wide climate change risk analysis to determine the impact of fossil fuels on BCI’s public equity investments, and subsequent disclosure of all findings to pension members. 2. Divestment: freezing any new investment and developing a plan to first remove high-risk companies from portfolios, particularly coal and oil sands producers, and then moving toward sector-wide divestment.
Canada’s Mid-Century Long-term Low Greenhouse Gas Development Strategy
The document, submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the COP22 meetings in Marakkesh “is not a blueprint for action, and it is not policy prescriptive. Rather, the report is meant to inform the conversation about how Canada can achieve a low-carbon economy.” The document summarizes a full range of the recent policy documents, and modelling analyses with various scenarios towards deep emissions reductions. It also states: “Working collaboratively with Indigenous peoples by supporting their on-going implementation of climate change initiatives will be key. Consultations with Indigenous communities must respect the constitutional, legal, and international obligations that Canada has for its Indigenous peoples”, and “ Canada will need to fundamentally transform all economic sectors, especially patterns of energy production and consumption. Over time, this requires major structural changes to the economy and the way people live, work, and consume.”
Canada’s Renewable Power Landscape – Energy Market Analysis 2016
This document provides overview statistics for Canada, and by province and region, for all the renewable energy sources installed - hydro, wind, solar, biomass, and in Nova Scotia, tidal. Charts, graphs and infographics are used, many compare 2005 to 2015. Includes a summary of energy policies in each province.
Canadian Capital Markets and Sustainability: Issues, Challenges and opportunities
Sustainability is somewhat of a new frontier for the capital markets, where the risks are high, the responsibilities great and the rewards, potentially enormous. There are now growing opportunities for capital market participants to participate and contribute to sustainable development through lending, insurance and investment activities and through developing benchmarks, indices, standards and reporting regimes. The definition used for “Sustainability” refers to business strategies and processes that add economic, environmental and social value to shareholders, employees and society.
Canadian environmental sector trends: Supplemental report: Future growth expectations for worker demand
Provides statistics of employment trends and some near-term forecasts for employment growth by environment-related industry e.g. wind industry, and some occupations.
Cap and Trade design principles for Canada
Six principles are outlined, one of which relates to the Oil Sands: "Canada’s oil sands development puts our country in a difficult position, since no other industrialized country faces a situation where it has such a large sector poised for rapid emissions growth. Oil sands will account for close to half (44 per cent) of the projected increase in total Canadian emissions between 2006 and 2020 in a “business-as-usual” scenario, and virtually all (95 per cent) of the projected increase in industrial emissions. The oil sands emissions must not be allowed to expand at this rate or corner the market on allowances to achieve this. The impact on the rest of the economy could be devastating, effectively driving other carbon intensive industries out of business."
Capital Markets Program - Briefing Paper
This Capital Markets Program (CMP) briefing paper aims to stimulate and focus discussion of how sustainability issues, principles and practices impact (a) investment decision making and risk analysis in capital markets, and (b) the business decisions and practices of Canadian companies. The paper identifies and outlines various topics and themes to inform discussion about and input to the objectives and scope of the CMP. The CMP is a program of the National Round Table on the Environment and Economy (NRTEE).
Capital Markets and Sustainability: Investing in a Sustainable Future
This is the final report of the NRTEE Capital Markets and Sustainability Task Force. The report is built around 3 themes: a) the need for regulatory efficiency of financial services —in particular, the need to remove barriers to capital flows ; (b) the need to foster corporate investment in technology and efficiency ; and (c) the importance of enhanced disclosure and transparency on what is becoming recognized by legal, accounting, and regulatory authorities, as well as by the capital markets, as sources of novel risk, including social and environmental issues, to corporations and investors. Recommendations are made around all themes: for increased social and environmental transparency, they include changes to university level education (e.g. MBA) to accelerate the acceptance of the need for transparency and corporate disclosure.
Chapter 9: Human Health from "Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment"
Chapter 9 of the landmark 3rd National Climate Assessment deals with human health impacts of climate change. Taking climate change as a global public health issue, the chapter states: "Key drivers of vulnerability include the attributes of certain groups (age, socioeconomic status, race, current level of health – see Ch. 12: Indigenous Peoples for examples of health impacts on vulnerable populations) and of place (floodplains, coastal zones, and urban areas), as well as the re-silience of critical public health infrastructure. Multi-stressor situations, such as impacts on vulnerable populations following natural disasters that also damage the social and physical infrastructure necessary for resilience and emergency response, are particularly important. Discusses heat stress in general, not as an occupational hazard.
Circular Economies in Canada's Forest Sector
The concept of circular economies suggests that optimal flow of goods and services can be represented as a loop. This can be manifest in a process when products are recovered after a period of use and transformed into new goods, and when the last product may be used as the basis for a new iteration of products. The concept is also present in regional geographies, where resources may flow from point to point for processing and use, and where the final leg of the process brings materials back to the starting point. A popular example of the circular economy is the carbon cycle, which sees old products serve as the basis for new growth and eventually new commercial activity. The forest economy has the potential to take the circular approach. This paper describes the current state of Canada's forest sector and identifies barriers to achieving a true circular approach. For example, Ontario is a region where massive disruptions to the existing economy have left the industry in crisis. Opportunities for reinventing the forest sector are discussed, as are the potential impacts on employment and economic returns from this approach.
Cities, Climate Change and the Green Economy: A Thematic Literature Survey
This working paper constitutes an extensive review of the literature concerned with exploring the role of cities in addressing climate change and green employment creation. It identifies five key areas for discussion: (1) greening the local economy; (2) shifting local policy roles and trends in urbanization; (3) policy learning and cross-jurisdictional collaboration; (4) the place of civic participation and engagement; and, (5) the co-benefits of a green economy. These areas will be addressed in an effort to critically explore the following questions: What impacts do cities have on climate change? What role are cities currently playing with regards to the development and implementation of climate change and green economic policies? What barriers do cities face with regards to developing and implementing climate change and green economic policies? What potential is there for policy development?
Clean Power Plan Factsheet: Overview of the Clean Power Plan
This brief Fact Sheet describes the essential points about the legislation, touching on the legislative history, justification, role of States, community benefits and environmental justice.
ClimaCon2: Building Power for Workers to confront Climate Change: Report from the Second Labor Convergence on Climate
The Conference theme was "Building Worker Power to Confront Climate Change." The event was held in September 2017; participants included over 130 people - U.S. labour union leaders, organizers, and rank and file activists from 17 unions, 3 state federations/central labor councils and 6 labour support organizations, as well as environmental and economic justice activists. Includes case study examples and a Draft Sample Union Resolution on Climate Change and the Labor Network for Sustainability. Speaker Elaine Bernard of Harvard University originated the slogan "Own the Bakery" here.
Climate Action Plan
On June 25,2013 U.S. President Obama laid out a comprehensive plan to reduce greenhouse gas pollution, prepare for the impacts of climate change, and lead global efforts to fight it. He based his arguments on moral, health, and economic grounds, and emphasized his personal commitment by announcing steps that he could authorize, without Congressional approval. The first major step in this plan came on September 20, when the Environmental Protection Agency proposed limits on carbon dioxide emissions from existing coal- and gas-fired power plants. In November 1, President Obama signed an Executive Order which establishes an interagency Council on Climate Preparedness and Resilience, chaired by the White House and including more than 25 agencies, to develop, coordinate, and implement priority Federal actions related to climate preparedness. It will supervise a new Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience, to be composed of state, local, and tribal leaders, who will advise on how the Federal Government can respond at the community level.
Climate Action Plan for New Brunswick
The Council's document is a submission to the provincial government's public hearings on climate change. It proposes to reduce GHG emissions through investments in retrofitting, starting with social and low-income housing; expand renewable energy ; provide incentives for electric and energy efficient vehicles; modernize industry and manufacturing to reduce waste and pollution, and accelerate installation of the Energy Internet (Smart Grid telecommunications) to manage a more distributed electricity load. These investments would help NB Power phase coal out of electricity production over the next 15 years.
Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: A Canadian Perspective
Overview of Canadian economic sectors, how climate change will affect each, and the state of research and adaptation to date as of 2004.
Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change: Overview
The overview, summary document, based on the larger Foundation document of the 1st National Assessment.
Climate Change Indicators in the United States 4th Edition 2016
A factual overview of issues including GHG emissions, weather, oceans, ecosystems, and human health, including statistics re heat-related deaths and illnesses, and others.
Climate Change White Paper
This policy statement by the government acknowledges the problem of climate change but opposes the solutions set out in the federal government's Vancouver Declaration - especially carbon taxes. Saskatchewan states: "we believe the third option—innovation and technological development—offers both the greatest potential for significant improvements in global GHG emissions, while causing the least harm to our economy."
Climate Change and Canadian Unions: The Dilemma for Labour
In 2010, a group of Canadian trade unions, labour academics and environmental groups began a five year funded community-university research project, Work in a Warming World (W3), to develop effective ways for labour to take leadership in the struggle to slow global warming. We stated the problem this way: How can labour broaden and deepen its capacity to protect work and workers from the unique threats posed by climate change, all the while contributing to the struggle to slow global warming within the context of increasingly pessimistic climate science, global economic crisis, a hostile national government and strategic paralysis in the national and international political arena? In this 2013 paper, the authors explore the challenges and dilemmas for labour leadership in relation to environmental responsibility in the current political climate in Canada, drawing on W3 research and the unexpected uses that research can be put to, using the case of the Canadian Union of Postal workers in catalyzing and internationalising activist engagement for climate bargaining.
Climate Change and Green Jobs: Labour’s Challenges and Opportunities. Policy paper #9 , 25th CLC Constitutional Convention
Policy statement re climate change and energy policies, including a call for the Federal government to establish Just Transition Funds, governed by an independent Just Transition Board with labour representation.
Climate Change and Human Rights
From the introduction by John Knox: " The question is no longer whether human rights law has anything to say about climate change, but rather what it says and how it can best be brought to bear... This report is the most detailed and comprehensive study yet undertaken of those questions". The study makes recommendations for actions by government, on the eve of the Paris COP 21 meetings.
Climate Change and Labour Union Strategy in the Accomodation Sector: Opportunitites and Contradictions
Climate change is affecting tourism-related industries such as accommodation and hospitality (e.g., changes in tourist flows, the ‘greening’ of hotels). The role organized labour in such industries will play in climate change mitigation and adaptation is less studied. This paper explores how such responses may be integrated into recent strategic initiatives building labour union capacities in the accommodation sector. The case of UNITEHERE, a union representing over 100,000 hotel workers in the United States and Canada, is explored. Specific attention is given to the integration of climate change into current activities such as: the union’s fight against ‘green-washing’; the scaling up of collective bargaining; the use of consumer preference as leverage against hotel companies; the implementation of a ‘high road vision’ for the sector; and campaigns for accessible public transit and community economic development. The paper concludes that climate change will be incorporated into existing union strategies, but there is limited capacity for radical transformation of the sector practices.
Climate Change and Labour: Impacts of Heat in the Workplace
The report identifies heavy labour and low-skill agricultural and manufacturing jobs as the most susceptible to heat changes caused by climate change. India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Cambodia, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and part of West Africa are the countries most at risk. Quoting the IPCC’s 5th Assessment Report, it states that “labour productivity impacts could result in output reductions in affected sectors exceeding 20% during the second half of the century–the global economic cost of reduced productivity may be more than 2 trillion USD by 2030.” Even if countries meet their Paris emissions reductions targets, rising temperatures may cut up to 10 percent of the daytime working hours in developing countries. On the human scale, the authors surveyed more than 100 studies in the last decade which document the health risks and labour productivity loss experienced by workers in hot locations. Several important indirect effects of heat stress are raised: alteration of work hours to avoid the heat of the day; the need to work longer hours to earn the same pay for those whose productivity falls due to heat stress, or suffer income loss; increased exposure to hazardous chemicals when workplace chemicals evaporate more quickly in higher temperatures; and possible exposure to new vector-borne diseases. The report calls for protection for workers , including low cost measures such as assured access to drinking water in workplaces, frequent rest breaks, and management of output targets, incorporating protection of income and other conditions of Decent Work.
Climate Change and Work
As part a comprehensive review of climate change literature, this paper examines the relationship between climate change and jobs. For 25 years, scientists have warned us of climate change and our need to create a sustainable society to mitigate and adapt to it. Though this process will be difficult, the Global Climate Network, an alliance of independent think tanks, estimates that the development and wide use of low-carbon technology will create millions of jobs globally. In Canada, the lack of political leadership on climate change has increased carbon emissions, stimulated an industry of climate denial, missed out on green jobs and clean energy investments. A proactive approach to climate change leads to job creation. Pending an effective political response, it is urgent and necessary to create a movement to “repair the planet” by involving trade unionists, environmental activists, academics, educators and journalists. To the extent that such action “from the bottom up” is effective, it will combat climate change and result in new jobs in a new, sustainable economy.
Climate Change and the Australian Workplace: Final Report for the Australian Department of Industry
This report, inspired by the Canadian Work in a Warming World project at York University, covers a similar broad range of interest, acknowledging the importance of the world of work in producing, and thus, mitigating, carbon emissions. It seeks to describe the policies and attitudes and innovative reactions of Australian management and unions regarding climate change and greenhouse gas emission reduction. It also reports on labour market impacts of climate change. Section 4 is an analysis of the environmental clauses in Enterprise Agreements in Australia for 2009-2010, and for 2011-2012.
Climate Change, Construction and Labour in Europe: A Study of the Contribution of Building Workers and their Unions to 'Greening' the Built Environment in Germany, the United Kingdom and Denmark
This study reviews the overall climate policy and legislative framework of the European Union (EU) and then examines what governments in Germany, the UK and Denmark have done to reduce energy consumption, cut greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and limit their reliance on fossil fuels. It then looks at the climate policies being implemented in the construction industry and the role the trade unions, in these countries, have played in efforts to address the challenge of climate change. Finally, it examines some of the specific initiatives the building trades unions have taken to further the transition to a ‘greener’ economy. The study concludes that the ability of unions to play a constructive environmental role is partly dependent on the broader policy framework established by governments and partly dependent on their influence within their own industry. Where union density is high and where unions are significant players in training and workforce development, they have had considerable success in shaping the environmental policies of the construction industry. Conversely where union representation is weak, where unions are marginal players in the overall labour relations system, they have not been able to exercise significant influence over how their industries have dealt with global warming. While the role of labour is only one factor in determining the effectiveness of climate policies in the construction sector, the presence - or absence - of union involvement does make a difference in the capacity of the three countries to implement the goal of promoting a ‘greener’ economy and society
Climate Change, Global Food Security, and the U.S. Food System: Executive Summary
This is the Executive Summary of the larger report by the same name - a technical, scientific, and economic analysis of climate-change effects on global food security and food systems. The report’s scope is global, due to the interdependencies within and among food systems and the shifting geography of food supplies and demands. The report does not examine the U.S. food system nor make recommendations.
Climate Change, Work and Employment in the Agri-Food Sector: Is the Ontario Food System Sustainable?
The alternative food movement is growing and consists of local groups that advocate for a sustainable, secure, affordable and safe food system that is distributed primarily through local or regional community markets. It has grown in response to consumer demand as more people search for high quality, often organic, food products. As the amount of this food increases, the jobs and labour processes are also changing. This paper seeks to analyse the current food system in Ontario – both the industrial system and the growing alternative, often organic, local food system. We also will examine the interrelationship between the industrial and alternative food systems, because organics are influencing management decisions at grocery stores, and government policy is evolving. Our research is taking account of the growing theoretical literature that covers food and climate change and we link this material to issues of work and employment. We will focus on jobs and employment in the food system as well as analyse how best to make the food system in this province sustainable in the face of climate change. With increasing extreme weather events, the need to adapt the food system to climate change, the need for food security and the necessity of having a sustainable food system in Ontario all become more urgent concerns. We also suggest ways of mitigation and adaptation to ensure future food security. Some of this information is known, while some requires more research which we are undertaking, so this is very much a working paper.
Climate Change, its Consequences on Employment and Trade Union Action: Training manual for workers and trade unions
The first module provides a broad overview of the causes and consequences of climate change globally. It is a general introduction to key concepts such as adaptation and mitigation. It also gives a broad overview of the economics and the international governance of climate change. The second module analyses in depth the potential consequences of climate change, and mitigation and adaptation measures on employment. The last module explores the way trade unions can contribute to climate change action from the international to the workplace level. The objective is to introduce briefly the main mechanisms in place, but particularly to underline the importance of civil society’s participation, namely workers and trade unions.
Climate Justice, green jobs and sustainability
The authors advocate a green social contract: "A “green social contract” would guide a government to prioritize both the environment and the well-being of its citizens in any decision-making process, and would include strategies for helping workers transition to green jobs and protect against widespread unemployment. “Just transition” packages should include education and training, income support and mobility allowances for workers who need assistance in changing careers. A coordinated strategy should bring in secondary, post-secondary and training/apprenticeship programs to ensure appropriate skills development."
Climate Leadership - Report to Minister
The report of the Advisory Panel, led by Andrew Leach, proposed a number of policy changes, almost all of which were immediately implemented by the new NDP government of Alberta. The policies are being hailed as a turning point in Alberta, including a plan to replace two-thirds of coal-generated electricity with renewables by 2030 , and to phase in carbon pricing, starting at $20 a tonne in January 2017 and reaching $30 a tonne by January 2018 . Emissions from the be oil sands will be capped at 100-megatons – representing a drastic reduction from the 267 megatons produced in 2013, although no date is attached to the proposal.
Climate Plans Must Include Just Transition for Environment and Economy to Thrive
This press release coincides with the First Ministers' meetings in Vancouver, to encourage the politicians to follow through on the Just Transition provisions negotiated in the Paris Agreement. It provides a policy statement on necessary components of Just Transition, including the need for industry-supported transition funds and inclusion of all parties in crafting programs.
Climate Progress: Ontario's plan for a cleaner, more sustainable future. Annual Report 2009-2010
This annual report highlights the progress to date and steps planned to support Ontario's climate change goals and our vision of a clean and low carbon economy.
Climate change and our jobs: finding the right balance. Discussion paper for the CAW Canada - Quebec Joint Council. St. John's N
This report provides an overview of the issues of climate change, and a history of the CAW's positions and actions on environmental issues. It concludes with a statement of future intentions for bargaining and advocacy.
Climate change: agencies should develop guidance for addressing the effects on Federal Land and Water Resources
Includes case studies of forests and national parks. Results of a workshop of National Academies of Science experts, Nov. 2, 2006.
Combined Heat and Power: A Guide to Developing and Implementing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Programs
This guide is directed to municipal staff, planners, and politicians. This guide describes CHP, also known as cogeneration, which refers to the simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy from a single fuel source. This guide includes an overview of the benefits of CHP systems, costs, sources of funding, and case studies.
Combined Heat and Power: Effective energy solutions for a Sustainable future
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) solutions represent a proven and effective near-term energy option to help the United States enhance energy efficiency, ensure environmental quality, promote economic growth, and foster a robust energy infrastructure.