Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces to Respond to Climate Change

100,000+ Jobs: Getting Albertans back to Work by Building a Low-Carbon Future
The report states that “Alberta has the potential to create over one hundred and forty-five thousand new jobs — 46,780 jobs in renewable energy, 68,400 jobs in energy efficiency, and 30,000-40,000 jobs in mass transit.” It provides case studies and makes policy recommendations.
2011-2014 GHGRP Industrial Profiles: Petroleum and Natural Gas
This report provides statistics for GHG emissions of petroleum and natural gas production, processing, transmission and distribution in 2014. These activities accounted 236 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This is an increase of 3.5% compared to 2013 GHG emissions from this sector.
A Climate change plan for the purposes of the Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act
Outlines Canada's Kyoto targets and obligations for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, current emissions, and the actions taken to reduce emissions, with special focus on energy and transportation sectors. This document does not include a comprehensive inventory of climate change actions taken by the Government of Canada- only federal actions that will result in emission reductions during the Kyoto Protocol compliance period (2008-2012) are included. Also available in French.
A Green Economic Stimulus Package to Secure our Current and Future Prosperity
We propose at least $15 billion in targeted investments that will create over 160,000 jobs this year in areas such as clean energy and transportation, and green infrastructure and households. These activities will generate immediate economic returns – at least on par with other stimulus options – while reducing environmental impacts hat cost Canada billions each year. We have researched a broad range of potential stimulus measures put forward by international and Canadian organizations and experts. Each was tested against a series of economic and environmental criteria, which essentially ask two questions: (i) will it provide maximum economic bang for the buck (using basically the same criteria as Finance does); and (ii) will it also generate significant environmental benefits (based on a three part test)? Our results were reviewed by some of Canada’s top economic experts, and form the basis for our recommendations. Our three areas of focus are: Public (green infrastructure); Business (clean development and jobs), and Households (helping Canadians go green).
A Green Industrial Revolution: Climate Justice, Green Jobs and Sustainable Production in Canada
Marc Lee and Amanda Card acknowledge that transition to a zero carbon Canada will take several decades, and state that the principal challenge for Canada and all countries is to decouple the economy from fossil fuels. They calculate that only 9% of Canadian workers are employed in jobs related to fossil fuels and other "hot spots" of Canadian industry (including electricity generation, freight transportation and transportation services, chemical manufacturing, metal manu­facturing and agriculture), yet these sectors comprise 78% of industrial and commercial GHG emissions. The authors also calculate GHG emissions per worker in 14 industrial sectors in Canada. The report offers 12 recommendations for achieving zero carbon growth while creating and maintaining decent green jobs.
A Human Health Perspective On Climate Change
One purpose of this document is to identify research gaps to increase the understanding of climate change and health. Expanding our understanding of the often indirect, long-term, and complex consequences of climate change for human health is a high priority and challenging research task.
A Labor Rights Statement of Support: (Resolution for Environmentalists)
Labour unions are frequently asked to pass resolutions relating to climate and environmental policy. This sample resolution, recently approved by the board of the Labor Network for Sustainability, is offered so that other environmental and climate protection organizations will consider and pass it, and endorse labour union rights including freedom to organize and bargain collectively. Also includes such statements: "We pledge to work together for job creation in a climate-friendly economy; fight together for full employment in an economy that uses union labor. For example, American steel made by USW members must be used to make wind turbines erected by union building trades workers."
A New Union for a Challenging World: Unifor’s Vision and Plan
At the founding convention of the new union (a merger of the CAW and the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union), Unifor promises to oppose the export of raw bitumen and the construction of massive pipelines, advocating for more “made in Canada” inputs and processing. It pledges to work with environmental allies to advocate for a Canadian energy policy which reduces GHG emissions, ensures a sustainable development of the oil sands and promotes value-added jobs in upgrading and refining petroleum products.
A New Wave of Climate Insurgents Defines Itself as Law-Enforcers
The author characterizes the upcoming 2016 "Breakfree" protests as part of a “climate insurgency”, which is seen “not only as a moral but as a legal right and duty, necessary to protect the Constitution and the public trust for ourselves and our posterity”. Brecher catalogues other U.S. examples, including the court challenges led by Our Children’s Trust.
A Profile of the Greenhouse Industry in British Columbia and Clues to Climate Change
This paper profiles the greenhouse industry in British Columbia, and seeks out the issue of climate change in the same industry. It concludes that the industry is expanding and is an important economic contributor to the economy of the province. It is also an industry that employs a large number of foreign migrant workers, who like most other workers in the industry, are on temporary employment basis. This has consequences for workers (see Aguiar et al for a discussion 2011). Finally, on the basis of scant literature that speaks to climate change issues, I argue that climate change has yet to be forcibly articulated by the stakeholders in the industry and thus a significant gap exists in the literature. I add that only through interviews and case study analysis with stakeholders in the industry, will we begin to pull out and understand the issues that implicate climate change in the greenhouse industry.
A Retrospective Assessment of Clean Energy Investments in the Recovery Act
A review of the spending and job creation achieved under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, enacted in 2009 under President Obama. Areas receiving government assistance: clean energy, energy efficiency, clean energy transportation and manufacturing.
ACW Baseline Report: Built Environment
This paper was presented at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces (ACW) International Workshop in Toronto, Canada, November 2015. The goals of the paper are: 1. To establish the current state of knowledge about the contribution of the workforce to ‘greening’ the construction industry; 2. To assess the potential of labour to shape the industry’s carbon footprint. 3. To identify barriers to the successful participation of the workforce in developing pathways to low carbon construction and develop strategies to circumvent these barriers. 4. To identify needed modifications to employment, employment conditions, working practices and the overall organization of construction work that will improve the capacity of the workforce to implement low carbon construction (effective health and safety provisions, integrated team‐based work practices, improved vocational education and training (VET), union representation and a greater say for the workforce in shaping the industry’s future). 5. To examine the current and potential role of unions and professional organizations in advancing this process. 6. To analyze the workforce implications of widely used policy tools, such as energy efficiency targets, building codes and contract procurement requirements in facilitating the transition to low carbon construction. 7. To carry out research on the role of workers and the organizations that represent them in implementing specific, innovative low carbon projects which can serve as models for wider application in the building industry.
ACW Baseline Report: Domestic Policy
Presented at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces (ACW) International Workshop in Toronto, Canada, November 2015. The paper presents an overview of Canadian policies and financing instruments, at the federal and provincial level, implemented to date to discourage greenhouse gas emissions and to encourage the adoption of green energy.
ACW Baseline Report: Energy
Presented at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces (ACW) International Workshop in Toronto, Canada, November 2015. A review of all energy-related emissions is provided in this report, along with projections of future energy use. It is shown that oil and gas, transport, and buildings are the sectors most responsible for our increased emission profile. Growth in industrial and transport energy use will demand significantly more fossil fuel unless policy interventions push us towards ‘greener’ scenarios; using projections from the Trottier Energy Futures Project (TEFP 2016), two such scenarios are explored, one focused on sustainable urban development, and the other on a future where new electricity generation from nuclear sources is constrained. In both of these scenarios, the amount of electricity used in every sector increases dramatically. This suggests that a critical issue of the future will be designing new electricity generation in order to benefit both society and the workers who are engaged in the projects
ACW Baseline Report: Manufacturing
This workplan sets out a base of information concerning 3 manufacturing sectors: auto, forestry, and food processing.
ACW Baseline Sub-Report: Labor Unions and Green Transitions in the US
This Draft Baseline Report was prepared for the ACW Project, December 7, 2015 (edited April 15, 2016). Please do not quote without the consent of the author. This report provides an exploratory overview of U.S. labor union proposals and practices regarding a green transition. It focuses, primarily, on national level unions. One goal of the report is to explore whether workers and unions are striving to be the agents and authors of a green transition and what political dynamics may prevent or enable them to do so. A second goal is to explore how inclusive or exclusive the green transitions envisioned by unions may be.
ACW Baseline Sub-Report: Policies and Practices to Promote Work Enhancing Pathways in the Transition to a Low Carbon Economy
Presented at the Adapting Canadian Work and Workplaces (ACW) International Workshop in Toronto, Canada, November 2015. This review gives an overview of the European policy context with regard to climate change. An analysis is presented of the views of the principal Europe wide trade union organization, the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) on this new policy context for environmental sustainability and climate change. This is based on publicly available documentary sources along with reports on a selection of European national trade union confederation initiatives and recent developments in trade union/labour movement policy by European policy institutions and analysts.
Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit A geospatial data resource from U.S. EPA’s Office of Sustainable Communities: Technical D
Access to Jobs and Workers via Transit is a free geospatial data resource and web mapping tool for comparing the performance of neighborhoods in regards to their accessibility to destinations via public transit service. Using publically available transit service data we calculated – for each U.S. census block group – travel time to all other census block groups accessible via transit. Drawing on data from the census we tabulated how many people live and work in those accessible block groups. We combined these data to summarize several indicators of transit accessibility for individual block groups as well as regional benchmarks for comparison. Travel time is limited to 45 minutes and is inclusive of wait times, transfers, and walking to/from transit stops. Coverage is limited to metropolitan regions and counties served by transit agencies that publically share their service data in a standard format called GTFS. A full listing of those areas is included as appendix to this report.
Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada
This report recommends a unified carbon pricing policy for Canada—a policy aimed at meeting one clear objective: the greatest amount of carbon emission reductions, at the least economic cost. Following more than a year of research and consultation, our report sets out what we believe is the most effective, realistic, and achievable carbon pricing policy for current and anticipated Canadian circumstances.
Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada - Technical Backgrounder
This report complements the Achieving 2050: A Carbon Pricing Policy for Canada report by providing additional details on the analysis underpinning the conclusions in the Advisory Note. By integrating the research commissioned or developed by the NRTEE, including economic modelling, it illustrates the main Advisory Note’s grounding in credible and original analysis. The Technical Backgrounder also provides a useful policy design framework and reference tool for policy makers by identifying important design and implementation issues and the trade-offs between the main design options .
Achieving Balance - Ontario's Long-Term Energy Plan
Achieving Balance was released on December 2, 2013. It is an updated long-term energy plan which emphasizes energy conservation, maintains the policy of ending coal-generated electricity, and holds the line on investment in new nuclear power facilities. The Thunder Bay nuclear plant will be converted to generate energy from advanced biomass. The plan acknowledges Ontario’s reduced energy demands and sets a target of about half of Ontario’s installed generating capacity to come from renewable sources by 2025. Several backgrounders were also released supporting the strategic directions, including backgrounders re Northern Ontario, First Nations, and conservation. Also available in French.
Achieving Public Policy Objectives through collective agreements: The Project Agreement Model for public construction in British
From the authors: "The Construction of the $1.2 billion Vancouver Island Highway Project provided an opportunity for the building trades unions and the Government of BC to negotiate an innovative collective agreement that included union membership, training for local residents and members of equity groups, new employment opportunities for members of designated equity groups and a comprehensive health and safety program. The Project implemented the most comprehensive system of tracking progress in employment equity in BC’s history. By its completion, women, First Nations, persons with disabilities and visible minorities accounted for just under 20% of total hours worked in an industry where 2% representation is the norm. Over 94% of payroll went to local residents, ensuring their communities the benefits of this major capital project. Finally, the health and safety record was significantly better than on any comparable construction project. Far from being an impediment to the efficient and timely completion of this major construction project, the collective agreement made it possible to deliver training, employment opportunities and regional development." Archived at the Just Labour website at .
Acting on Climate Change: Extending the Dialogue Among Canadians
Compiles submissions from First Nations, business, NGOs, labour, youth and private citizens , organized into topics which include Employment and Labour, Social Justice, Indigenous Perspectives, Reinventing Cities, Renewable Energy Challenges, Youth, and more. Submissions were made in response to the first SCD consensus paper from March 2015: "Acting on Climate Change: Solutions from Canadian Scholars". Highlight papers from the responses: “The role of workers in the transition to a low-carbon economy ; “Protect the Environment by Doing More Work, Not Less”; and “Envisioning a Good Green Life in British Columbia: Lessons From the Climate Justice Project”.
Acting on Climate Change: Solutions from Canadian Scholars
“A scholarly consensus on science-based, viable solutions for greenhouse gas reduction”. Sixty academics from across Canada combined to urge policymakers to adopt a long-term target of at least an 80 % reduction in emissions by mid-century. “In the short-term, we believe that Canada, in keeping with its historical position of aligning with US targets, could adopt a 2025 target of a 26-28% reduction in GHG emissions relative to our 2005 levels.” Policy recommendations include, most immediately: Either a national carbon tax or a national economy-wide cap and trade program; elimination of subsidies to the fossil fuel industry ; and integration of sustainability and climate change into landscape planning at the regional and city levels so that maintenance and new infrastructure investments contribute to decarbonizing. The paper also advocates establishment of East-West smart grid connections to allow hydro-producing provinces to sell electricity to their neighbours; energy efficiency programs, and a “transportation revolution”. Also available in French, as Agir sur les changements climatiques,
American Unions Form Alliance to Prevent Climate Disaster and Promote Prosperity
A defense of the unions who have joined a PAC for the U.S. election 2016. In reference to the New York Times article, May 16, "Rift Between Labor and Environmentalists Threatens Democratic Turnout Plan”, the authors state: "The Times characterized this as a “rift between labor and environmentalists.” It is much better understood, however, as an effort by a small group of unions to retain their veto power within the AFL-CIO.”… “The great majority of unions that accepted the alliance with NextGen Climate should proudly defend it as a way to express this historic tradition of meeting their members’ needs by addressing the most pressing needs of society.”
An Overview of Indigenous Models of Conservation
This report presents the NRTEE with an overview of how indigenous people have approached, and continue to approach the protection and preservation of land and resources within broader ecosystem environments.
Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy: A Resource for States
From the introductory comments: "This groundbreaking document is the first to organize and present a comprehensive review of the multiple benefits of clean energy, together with an analytical framework that states can use to assess those benefits during the development and implementation of clean energy policies and programs."
Aviation and climate change
Subtitle is: aircraft emissions expected to grow, but technological and operational improvements and government policies can help control emissions.
Bioindustry Creates Green Jobs
Fact sheet listing possible career options for biofuels - from farms to professional bioengineering.
Biopower Technical Strategy Workshop Summary Report
"This report summarizes the results of a workshop sponsored by the DOE/EERE Biomass Program in Denver, Colorado, on December 2–3, 2009. The workshop was convened to identify and discuss challenges to the expanded use of biopower and the possible solutions, including technology research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) as well as policies and other market transformation mechanism."
Border Adjustments for Economywide Policies That Impose a Price on Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Examines the unintended consequences of economy-wide programs such as carbon pricing. Also examines border adjustments, "which could reduce the loss of competitiveness and make the costs of U.S. producers more similar to those of producers in countries that do not impose comparable policies, but such adjustments could be difficult to implement and to defend if challenged as being inconsistent with the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), one of the component agreements of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Transition assistance could also offset the loss of competitiveness."
Building An Ontario Green Job Strategy: Ensuring the Climate Change Action Plan creates good Jobs where they are needed most
The report focuses on the building sector provisions within Ontario’s Climate Change Action Plan (June 2016), providing job creation forecasts from the reinvestments of energy cost savings into the economy. It also discusses Just Transition issues, and highlights the examples of community benefits agreements and high road agreements, which ensure job quality. The report was written by Glave Communications for the Clean Economy Alliance , Environmental Defence, and Blue Green Canada , “with the participation of the United Steelworkers, UNIFOR, Clean Energy Canada, the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, the Toronto and York Region Labour Council, the Labour Education Centre, the Columbia Institute, Canadian Solar Industries Association, Ontario Sustainability, the Registered Nurses Association of Ontario, and Evergreen.”
Building Common Ground: A New Vision for Impact Assessment in Canada
The report incorporates a fundamental idea in its title: what is now “environmental assessment” should become “impact assessment”. The Panel recommends that: an Impact Assessment Commission should be established as an independent, arm’s length government agency, “with a broad leadership mandate to conduct project, region-based and strategic-level assessments. …. The Commission would also be mandated to generate its own independent science so that assessments are evidence-based and agency-led… and the Panel should commit to ensuring that the projects are not developed without the early involvement of potentially affected Indigenous peoples and the public. ”
Building Ontario's Green Economy: a Road Map
The brief report compiles policy recommendations for a variety of different sectors, including agriculture, construction, manufacturing, transportation, waste management. It calls upon the government to enact these policies urgently.
Building Sustainable Enterprises: A Knowledge Transfer Project - Delivery Plan
This delivery plan descibes the deliverables, budget and scope of the Building Sustainable Enterprises Project. It also outlines the roles and responsibilities of the partner organizations for project implementation and delivery. In addition, the delivery plan forms the basis for agreements between the Funding Partners, the NRTEE and Five Winds International.
Building a Clean Electricity Future
This chapter is part of a report that provides 76 recommendations that seek to enable the modernization and transformation of the electricity system. "Undertaken in conjunction with state and local governments, policymakers, industry, and other stakeholders, the recommendations provide the building blocks for longer-term, planned changes and activities."
Building the green economy: Employment effects of green energy investments for Ontario
Widely cited study. Estimates of job creation are given for 2 alternative investment scenarios for the province: 1) a baseline program of $18.6 billion invested in conservation and demand management; hydroelectric power; on-shore wind power; bioenergy; waste energy recycling; and solar power over 10 years, and 2) a more ambitious $47.1 billion 10-year investment program, also investing in off-shore wind power and a smart grid electrical transmission system. Recommendations include ways for the province to maximize the quantity and quality of those jobs.
CANUS West North Annex I to the Canada-United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A Plan for Response to Polluting Incidents Along the Inland Boundary between the Yukon Territory and the Province of British Columbia, Canada and the State of Alaska, United States of America - text of the agreement and detailed provisions for emergency response
CANUS-East Annex V to the Canada-United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A Plan for Response to Polluting Incidents Along the Inland Boundary between the Province of New Brunswick, Canada and the State of Maine, United States of America. Includes details and provisions for immigration procedures for workers crossing borders, and health and safety issues.
CANUSCENT Annex III to the Canada-United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A detailed disaster response plan including provisions relating to worker deployment, health and safety, and workers compensation.
CANUSPLAIN Annex II to the Canada United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A Plan for Response to Polluting Incidents Along the Inland Boundary between the Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, and the States of Minnesota, Montana and North Dakota.
CANUSQUE Annex IV to the Canada - United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
Detailed disaster response plans, including provisions regarding worker issues, health and safety and workers compensation. Covers Quebec and the states of Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, and New York.
CANUSWEST South: Annex I to the Canada-United States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan
A Plan for Response to Polluting Incidents Along the Inland Boundary between the Province of British Columbia and the States of Montana, Washington, and Idaho.
CEC Annual Report 2013
Annual report of cooperative activities of the Commission, composed of representatives of U.S., Canada, and Mexico. This particular report also includes information about recycling of Spent Lead Acid Batteries, and country reports from each of the 3 participant countries.
CLC Statement on Climate Change for Presentation to the House of Commons Committee on Bill C-30 March 1, 2007
Concluding paragraph: "Bill C-30 must set a clear framework for a national action plan to meet specified greenhouse gas reduction targets, including hard emissions caps for large final emitters and an emission trading system, a framework for new regulatory standards, establishment of mandates for funds to support a green jobs/green industrial strategy, including a Climate Change Investment Fund and funds for Just Transition. Funding for climate change programs and related tax reforms as highlighted above should be included in the 2007 Budget."
California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Decision granting a waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption
Full title: California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Decision granting a waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption for California's 2009 and subsequent model year Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles. Notice appearing in the Federal Register for July 8 2009, Vol. 74, No. 129 . A technical review of the history and science re the vehicle pollution standards.
Can Canada Expand Oil and Gas Production, Build Pipelines and Keep Its Climate Change Commitments?
This study assesses the consequences of several scenarios of expansion in the oil and gas sector in terms of the amount that the non–oil and gas sectors of the economy would need to reduce emissions to meet Canada’s Paris commitments. It finds Canada cannot meet its global climate commitments while at the same time ramping up oil and gas extraction and building new export pipelines. The study also reviews existing pipeline and rail capacity for oil exports under the cap on oil sands emissions announced last year by the Alberta government (set at 100 million tonnes (Mt) per year) and finds Canada has enough capacity to handle the 45% increase in oil sand production this would entail. It also takes a close look at oil price trends, and finds that new pipelines with tidewater access are unlikely to confer a significant price premium, as is widely believed.
Canada in a Changing Climate: Sector Perspectives on Impacts and Adaptation
This report, an update to a 2008 edition, synthesized over 1500 publications since 2007, and includes chapters on natural resources, food production, industry, biodiversity and protected areas, human health, and water and transportation infrastructure. Over 90 authors and 115 expert reviewers contributed to the document.
Canada's Emission Trends 2012
Also available in French as Tendances en matière d'émissions au Canada 2012 at: P.J. Partington of the Pembina Institute states: "The progress reflected in this year's emissions trends report is largely the result of updated baselines and accounting rules for greenhouse gas pollution, as well as the considerable action some provinces are taking to reduce their emissions." See
Canada's Emission Trends 2013
In releasing the 2013 Emissions Trends report in October, the Canadian government stated: “as a result of the combined efforts of federal, provincial and territorial governments, consumers and businesses, GHG emissions in 2020 will be 734 megatonnes (Mt). This is 128 Mt lower than where emissions would be in 2020 if no action were taken to reduce GHGs since 2005.” (The report did not state that it is also 122 Mt above Canada’s target level of 612 Mt.) The government will maintain its current course of regulating emissions on a sector-by-sector basis. Previous reports of 2011 and 2012 are also available online, as well as French versions.
Canada's Emission Trends 2014
"Under under a scenario that includes current measures and the contribution from LULUCF, absolute emissions are projected to be 727 Mt in 2020, 1.2% below 2005 levels. Emissions from the oil and gas and buildings sectors are expected to increase, while emissions in the electricity sector are projected to decrease between 2005 and 2020. Emissions in the transportation, emissions -intensive and trade-exposed, agriculture, and waste and other sectors remain close to 2005 levels." (LULUCF = Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry).