ilization has ever been made except under the leadership of one l

limited race, the Nordics. To-day the world is vibrating with racial questions. The various races, or at least the people who suppose that they belong to various races, are beginning to look askance at one another as never before. There is a fierce cry for the rights of racial minorities; there are rumors that great and devastating racial wars are brewing for the next generation. If open war is not threatened, there is even greater danger that the highest racial values will be irrevocably swamped by those of lower caliber.

The modernness of this whole idea of the importance of race is well brought out by Lord Bryce in his lecture on Race Senti- ment as a Factor in History. From a review of history he con- cludes that the mere consciousness of racial affinity has had al- most no effect upon the contact of nation with nation. The Greeks, to be sure, differentiated sharply between themselves and the barbarians. Their cities fought side by side in an effort to stay the advance of the Persians, and seem to have done this largely because the enemy was of an alien race. But the Greeks also fought fiercely against one another, and thereby contributed

greatly to their own decay. The Phoenicians likewise had a-

strong racial feeling which caused them to inform the Persian kings that while they were willing to fight their maritime rivals, the Greeks, they would not serve against their kinsmen of Car- thage. But perhaps it was mere community of language, or the exigencies of commerce, which held the Phoenicians and their colonies together. In the same way, but more markedly, the ancient Jews showed an ahnost unequalled racial solidarity. Nevertheless, the Israelites not only intermarried with neighbor- ing Egyptians, Philistines, and Hittites, but adopted their gods. The various tribes of ancient Israel never thought of helping one another against the Syrian invaders. T o-day religion is prob- ably more potent than race in preserving Jewish unity.

Aside from the Greeks, Phoenicians, and Jews, Bryce finds no t, case previous to the last century where people have waged war i‘

or refrained from waging war because of racial motives. He may