The White race of Europe is now commonly divided into three

_ main types in which the form of the head, the stature, and the

type of hair as well as the complexion are important criteria. The Nordics, as is now generally agreed, are a long-headed, tall, blue-eyed, fair-haired people, generally with curly or Wavy hair. The Alpines, who predominate in the east and center of the con- tinent, are broad-headed, of medium height, and more stocky than the Nordics. They are typically brown-eyed and brown- haired, and generally their hair is either straight or only slightly Wavy. The Mediterraneans, who dwell largely in the south and southeast, are long-headed like the Nordics, but short of stature, black-eyed, and with straight black hair. Each of the three races is best developed in certain areas, although there is a

A vast amount of overlapping and intermixture.

Sometimes the division of mankind into races goes still far-

, ther and is based on still other criteria. Although the Aryan or

Indo-European race is not really a race but a group of people

speaking kindred languages, it occupies an extraordinarily large place in history and literature. Again, we often ascribe certain A characteristics to the French as a whole or to the French of Pro-

vence, for example, and say that this is because the French are

I Latins by race. It is sometimes said that the people of the F aroe Islands are a race of hardy fishermen. The Turks are l called a race of Turanian invaders despite the fact that Greek, I Armenian, and other blood is probably as abundant among them

as is that of the original Turkish stock, the Turkomans of central

, Asia. Evidently the word race is used in very various senses.

It would be better to use the word stock instead of race if only it had an adjective corresponding to “racial.” In the preceding

I paragraphs the criteria by which one race or stock is separated , from another fall into three groups: first, inherited bodily char- i acteristics, including the form of the head, stature, complexion, , and the character of the hair; second, geographical conditions,

including position on the earth’s surface and occupation; and third, cultural conditions, such as language in the case of the

A Indo-Aryans and Latins, and religion in the case of the Turks.