A RACIAL TEST 351

parents that the two can scarcely be separated. The importance of inheritance becomes still more clear when we go a little farther afield. Newburyport, with 15.0 eminent literary persons per 10,000 inhabitants, and Lynn with none are near neighbors north of Boston; but Lynn has an advantage over Newburyport in nearness to Boston, Harvard, and all the influences that radiate from a great city. Nevertheless, up to I850 Lynn had not given birth to a single person among the one thousand most eminent literary people of America, whereas N ewburyport, with an average population only about 12 per cent greater than that of Lynn, pro- duced nine. This seems to be explicable only on the supposition that during the first half of the nineteenth century there was greater inherent ability in Newburyport than in Lynn. New- buryport at that time was an especially pleasant place of resi- dence and attracted many fine families. Lynn has long been a relatively unattractive manufacturing town from which the most successful people are likely to move to Salem, Boston, Cam- bridge, Newburyport, and similar places.

Turning again to our table, it may be that New Orleans (0.8) stands almost at the bottom, because its climate is relatively debilitating. I feel quite certain that one of the important factors in causing the South in general to be backward in producing per- sons of eminence is the climate and the diseases which it fosters. Nevertheless Charleston, South Carolina (7.0), stands well toward the top of our list, coming next to Boston, in spite of having a climate which is by no means so stimulating as that of Brooklyn (1.5), Pittsburgh (0.8), and Cincinnati (0.0). The low position of Pittsburgh and Cincinnati may have been due to their newness and to the fact that their able men were engrossed in building up a new country. But this explanation can apply only in small measure to Brooklyn, Lowell, New Orleans, and Newark. The type of inherent ability that expresses itself in literature seems simply to have been deficient in those cities; for one reason or another they have not attracted and have not retained people of that particular type. They may have produced other types of ability; Cincinnati, for example, has produced an unusual