In the same year the exports of hardware: and cutlery amounted to 2 millions sterling, and of copper to 3 millions, and machinery to no less than r4 millions sterling. The heavy exports of British machinery and steam engines to India, France, Germany, the United States, and other countries, are really the chief cause of the enormous advance made in these countries within recent years in the manufacture of textile fabrics and other goods previously imported from this country.

Coal : 14% million pounds’ worth of coal was exported in I893,

principally through Cardfi-the world’s greatest coal port—and the Tyne Paris.

In three years, 1890 to 1893, the coal export decreased from I9 millions to 14% millions sterling. France takes about 5 million tons of British coal every year; Italy and Germany, each about 3% million tons ; and Russia, Sweden. Denmark, Spain, and Egypt, about a million and a half tons each. Vessels to the Baltic ports from Newcastle, and to the Spanish ports from Cardiff, take out coal and bring back timber from Russia and Scandinavia, and iron ore from Spain.

Chemicals, dye-stuffs, and tanning materials are annually ex- ported to the value of between 8 and 9 millions sterling. British chemicals are sent principally to the United States and the Continent.

Other important items in the Export Returns (with their annual value in millions sterling) are :—leather and leather goods (3%), silk manufactures (2%), books, paper and stationery (3%), india- rubber goods (1%), earthenware (2), fish (1%), tea (1%), coffee

(2 % ), beer and ale (%). Leather and leather goods are sent chiefly to France, the United States,

Germany, Holland, and Belgium. Silk manufactures, silk waste and raw silk, are sent to the United States, France, Australasia and India. Books, paper and stationery are sent principally to the United States and the British Colonies in Australasia, &c. India-rubber goods and the raw material are ex- ported chiefly to the Continent and the United States. British-made Earthen- ware goes chiefly to the United States. Large quantities of Fish are sent to the Catholic countries of Europe. Tea, CoHee and Cocoa are re-exported in large quantities to Germany, Holland, France, &c., and British Beer and Ale are sent all over the world, but most largely to our own Colonies and De- pendencies.

The British Mercantile Marine exceeds the merchant navies of all other nations taken together, and most of the sea-borne goods and produce, not only of our own country, but also of foreign

countries, is carried in British ships, which are thus the “ocean

carriers” of the world.

Britain possesses more than half the merchant service of the world. British "liners" constantly traverse the great Ocean Highways almost with the regularity of express trains, while British cargo steamers and sailing vessels load and unload in almost every port in the world. “Wherever a cargo is expected, you will generally find a British vessel lying to bring it; wherever a cargo is waiting, there is a British ship ready to load it." Protected by the most powerful navy the world has ever seen, our immense fleet of merchant vessels, largely owned by wealthy and enterprising commercial companies, has